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Khorang Magazine 2006

 

      ARTICLES
Kokborok English
Kuchuk Yakhilio Kokborok Secret of Education Development of  Race
Borok Dofani hukumu no mwthang narwkthai In The Realms of Memoirs
Buddhijibi Ba Intellectual Sabo Science and Religion
Baba Goria Mufuk-ni de Tongmani Education: Freedom of Mind
Borok Mung Live or Dead

Kuchuk Yakhili-o Kokborok

Rabindra Kishore Debbarma

Kokborok belay kok kwcham. Chini bharot hayungo kok  kwchamni bero Kokborok bo kaisa kok kwchamkuk. Obo kok kwcham simiya; ko kwthangbo. Ahayiya khai obo taibo swkangno chini bukhukni kwmai thahngkhamun. Sal kwbang bisi kwbang romwi obo khukbai khukno sajagwi faikha. Bono romwi tisanani, sagmang foloknani kok swakanini simi wansuk jaklia eba kebo wansugwi manlia. Abo sak kwbangma swakani simino nangsarjak nairokbai hanang pinang kwlailjagwi faikha. Tabuk bo khwlaijagwino tongkho. Khwlaijakma choryakho. Baksa bukhuk baithang Kokborok hamarini kok sawo fiyaba yak baithang hamari ni samung tangya. Singchong bising ni toksa hai khikrok nukjak bokhorok hwijak. Hai fano Kokborok thahngwi tongkho, thwywi thahng yakho. Abo simiya bwskangni himdul kologo kolomtwi swra swra himwi bo tongkho. Tamungwi hinba, Kokborok kok kwthathangrogni bero kaisa eba kok kwthangrokni beremo khobjak.

 Bhasani kok sathani UNESCO ni saklaimungtwi(1993 AD) nukjago- o hayungo bebagwi saidok bhasa tongo. Manoroma year book(2002) ni kok rwgwi chwng sio- bebag hayungo bhasa tongo saidok rachar(6800). Bharot hayungo no saisa radok kholnwi chi nwi (1652) bhasha tongo hinwi saoi  manjak kha. Baksa baksa sawo o hayungo kai saitham swk bhasa eba bhasa bedek tongo. Aboni bisingo bharot hayungo no tongo kai saisa raba(1500) bhasa. Aboni bero chikon chikon kok eba upo bhasa taibo tongo. Aborok bokhorok tisai buini samo bachai manyakhu. Abaino buini mokolo kwlaiya. Fiyaba bachaya sanisi yakung tei bisima belai kwlwiwi kwsai thahngma bo nugkha. Fan sogya rokni thhinang kwbang hamthaya. Aborog fangwnang bhasa rokbai monogwi khibijago tai monogwi tongmabo chini mokol bwsakang nugjago.  Abotwi lukurokni hukumo maribo kwmarwgwi tongo. Yakhili kuchugo kajak borok kwbangkuk lukurokni hukumu bahai manwi abobai gwdaljagwi twrwk twrwk baithang ni gwrwng yakarwrwgwi rina nangwi tongo. Aboni yagulo abobo buini hukumu tolawo bokhorok bomwi sagmang swkwmaui khibio. Abo belai wanamasingsa tai kirima singcha kok. Fiyaba chini Kokborok tai luku hukumu kwlai kithikni bisingtwino kasing maltwi twrwk twrwk malwi sal kahamni pohor bwkhak thahgwi tongo. Abono chini tongthokmani kok. Abaino bufang bosok nobar kotoro baywi kwlaima hai Kokborok sanairogni bwkha baiwi kwlaina kok kwrwi. Bwkha sochai tongna nanganw. Chini nok arini twi bosong kaisani kok 'Bodo' tabuk bharot hayungni kaichichar(18) bahsa eba kok oshtom topsilo khobjagwi tongkha.  Fiyaba tabuk Bodo, meitei twi Sautal o bhasa kaitham kwtal khai songbidhan ni mario khopjagkha.

Kokborok tabuk sorkarbai gosiui najak kha. Bharotni songbidhan ni 350(3) dhara rwgwi rajyo tei amchai bubagra ni thani sakwlaijag kha, borok kusu lukurokni kok amano funugwi borogni achukthai o achukrina wngthu hinwi. Abaino Kokborok bo kok wanjwi ahai no Tiprani bubagra kok hinwi saorkar bai raidatwi sakwlai rijago. aongbidhan ni 345 dharani bisingtwi bidhan sobhawo kaisani kwbang bhasano bubagra kok eba 'sorkari bhasa' hinwi saklai mano. O raidatwi no1963 salo Tripura bidhan sobhawo bangla no 'sorkari bhasa' hinwi gosiui najago. Sukhomoy Sengupto mukhyumontri tongfuru Kokborokno sikkha ni madhyom hinwi sakwlai rijago. Sakhlaima bai baksa no  buino funukdrop kicha micha rwngnokrogo Kokborokbai nangnungya fwrwngnabo chengkha. Aboni yagulo bamfront sorkar 1979 sonni 19 January salo Tripura ni bidhan sobhawo Kokborokno 'sorkari bhasa' hinwi gosiui nakha.  Oro kok thaisa sathai kwlalio; afuru bidhan sobhani khorooksa adongfano o kok gosiya wnglia, kaisa koroya gosikha. Abotwi khoroksa koroya gosiui nalaimabai koborok kokno afuru belai borom funuk jak kha.

Kokborok ahai khaino twrwk twrwk bini hamarini yakhilio kaui tongoabotwi samungo kwbangma borok no chubaui faikha twi tabukbo chubaui no tongkho. Kailas Chandro Singho ni Rajmala rwgwi saui mano Durlobh Narayan ni Chubachu bai Sukreshwar tai Baneshwar mungwi borok khoroknwi sonskrit Rajmalano kokwanjwi o swlalikha. Afuru Durlobh narayan Kokborok bai bo Rajmala swikha hinwi Kailash chandro bini swimungo salangkha. Sukreshwar bai Baneshwar kok wanjwi bai Rajmala swilangmani tabuk bai bisi raba kholnwi chi(550) laikha. Fiyaba Kokborok bai swijak o Rajmala tabuk manthoklia, manthoganwi hinwi bo kha chongwi manlia. Abono karwi moharaj Radha Kishore Manikyo bahadur bo Kokborok bangla dictionary kangsa swikha hinwi khwnao. Fiyaba bini yak baithang swijak a dictionary kwrwngsao fano rutugwi manlia. 1703 bisio Kokborokbai swijak tai kangsa bijapni pandulipi agulini musuem o khatijoma tonijak kha hinwi khwnao. Abo swikha Durga Prosad Narayan  hinwi borok khoroksa. Bo Moharaja Mmohendro Manikyo ni jiboni a bijab swilangkha. Bini ulo Daulat Ahamed tei Sricha Ahamed Umor 1307 tring bisio (1898 AD) kokboroma mungwi 'Kokborok' kokma bijab kangsa swikha. Daulat Ahmed tai Sricha Ahmed Umor ni ulo Kokborok swilangnai chwng Radha Mohan Thakur no chwng  manu. Bo ingraji bisi 1900 ni simi 1907AD bisi jorao bijap kangtham swilangkha. Aborok wngkha 'Kokborokma'(Troipur Byakaron) 'Troipur kothamala' tai 'Troipur Bhasa Bidhan'. Sakawo sajakma rog rwgwi chwng saui mano Tipra ha bubagra rogni jora bo borok kwbangmano kok amano hamjagwi tongo tai Kokborok ni bagwi borog samungbo tangwi thahngkha. Fiyaba 'sorkari bhasa' wngya ni bagwi no afuru Kokborok sal kaham ni mwkhang nuklia, sal mokhehe ni mwkhang nukjakha.  Aboni ulni kokto bebak no saui mano, tai Kokborok lukuni khukni kwmaui thahnglia.

Tipra kok eba Kokborok kok twiwi rajniti kwbangma wngkha. Joto rajniti bodolno Kokborok no twiwi dwkhai bai fan solai tongo. Fiyaba tangthai samungrog kwbang tangthaya.  Jeswl tangnani kok aswk tangya. Tangya khai chukya aswk no tangwi tongo. Tabuk Kokborok 'bubagra kok' hinwi gosiui najak kha o kokle soi, fiyaba o kokbai porina school college o chalu khwlaiyani office kachchari eba sorkarni kubuni tang haba nokrogo chalu khwlai nanai kok kaham khai wansuk jakya tai yapri kwrakbo sehjakya. Swkango tonglangnai sorkar bo khwlalilangya, tabuk ni yaksi sorkarbo khwlaiya. Tabukni sorkar khai yafang tanwi buchugo kolomtwi swra swra khai twi lujawo aswk se kok. Kokbai simino nokha ni athukiri khakmaha Kokborok twiwi kok kwbangma salaio. Najakma bisi kwbang yagulo bo Kokborok halolo twilolo kwlai tongkho.

 Songdukrok ni bagwi 25 dofa, 37 dofa prostab ni bisingo Kokborok hamkwrwai ni koktisajak kha. Fiyaba samung ungsukya. Tabuk bo Kokborok ni bagwi director juda chongjakya. Kokborok ni bisi 25 tero kok sathani borom gwnang rajyopal Dinesh Nandan Sahay "Tribal language Cell" kaisa soongsanani kok samani tongo. Fiyaba bini o sakkwlaimung tabuk bo borom manyakho, tamungwi hinba taukbo bini kok rwgwi  juda 'Director' chongjakyakho Kokborok ni bagwi. Abrok belai chaya kok. Abotwi tugmung wngwi tongkhai Kokborok bahai sal kwchng ni mwkhang nuknai. Abotwi bai Kokborok ni hamari faigwlak tai Kokborok sanai bosongni bo hamari ni yakhili chongjak gwlak. Kokborokni bagwi alaida "Board" tongthai kwlaio. A samungo dai rithai kwlaiwi tongkha, fiyaba rijakya. Abo ni bagwino kuchugo kwsaui thahngthani Kokborok jwngjal kwbangma nukjagwi tongo.

Chwng Kokborok sanai rok khwtwng khaja wnglaijao. Fiyaba sorkarbai gosijakmani bisi 27 o chwng nugo Tipra amchoi ni rwngnok kwbangmao mung simisi Kokborok rwngnok; aborogo Kokborok fwrwngjaka. Tamongwi ahai wngkha aborok no wansugwi naithai kwlaio. Rotonpur kuchuk beremni rwngnok karwi karwi rwngnok khunsa o fano madhyamik tai higher secondary jora Kokborok bai fwrwngjakya, tai porikha rioi manya. Ha-bubagra naikhai tamo khwlai manya tongo, tamo wngya tong? Mwnago pohor rioi mano, tai pohorni mwnakriui mano. Obo yaksi sorkar sitwtwi Kokborokni mwswngjak chati butharwi derarima haise kwlai tongsio. Fia ang kha khwlai tongfano khorang kwbang yamrok yachagwi chirik mokoro khwlaiwi tangjakya samung tang riui mananw.

Ahaisi fano jwngjal kwbangma ni bising twino Kokborok bwskangno yapiri sewi tongo. Kami baduwa bangfano bini lama himmung mwthagwi manya. Tabuk Kokborok bosongni luku kwbangmano cha0chuya swikokng romna swrwngkha. Abobai kwbangma kokrwbai achaiwi tongo. Kokborok kokrwbai swiwi chini kborok swinairoog kwbangma sokat bo manbaikha. Tabuk Tipra Bishwa Bidyaloini chetona bai kokborko diploma course-bo khulok jak kha.takwlai kwbangma soduk swrwngnai rok aro admition bo nakha. College rogo bo Kokborok foundation course narwk jak kha. Swkango bini Kokborok sanairok baksa baksa Kokborok sana lachijak baio. Fiyaba chini kok ama tabuk college o tai University o thahngwi sogwikha. Jeswk akojo ni bisingo chini la kahamni homchang hai nukjagwi tongo. Chini kokrwbai tabuk hamrwrwgwi tongo. Twibo swinai kwtal kwtal kokborogo fairwrwgo. Ang kha khwlaiio Kokborok bai tabuk "Honours Course" chalu khwlai mano.

Kokborok kokni jwngjal kwbangma nugwi laitesa kha baina kok kwrwi. Chumui koboljak nokha chumui besertwi sal mwnwi horma haino kokbork bo tabuk mwnwi rorom khai yakhili kuchugo kaui tongo. Chwng aro saktarwi chubathai kwliao. Tipra ha bubagra-bo chini khapango fan rioi tonganw, taibo chubawanw, Kokborok kokni himma duwario fan boksinanw hinwi ang kha chongo.

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Borok Dofani hukumu tei tong rwbaino mwthang narwkthai

                         Dr. Bijay Debbarma

Laiphaijak cherai fangsini kok rokno mwitu mano, masing jora jefuru mai rajak nera kupulung mai auwar lelawo, nokha chumui bukcha, pimol tei kuwar, kamini nokbaro chwkap bahai, aichuk okra khuk hengra tai kamini bubar hakrai wongi nokhla ni hadwlwi saka fududu chari mwchang tongo, sanja jora nokhla-o mai nakmani hwr ti-ti ro-ro khorang nogo nog khwna horo dengi nogo dengi eba rwsam twi romo bai mai sukmani khorang khwnahoro; abo twi jora rwchabmung mwsamung ni mol bo sokfaio. Nogo nogo ugar, dol, rojong kupulung mai, biyal kwrwi kuluk kwsa bo bisini tai kubuni jora ni slai bangthaya khai nukjago. Para faiching khajaja tongthothok wngmani jora. Maising ni jora sal bara hor k olok; jani jani nogo kifil tongnai mwsukrokni yaskuro hadwlwi rangchak kobon mani baksa baksa no hachukni koktono sal dalak hai khe torsaui tei chaksaoi mwkhang hwiio. Bwra bwrwichwk rok bohrokni jani ja sukrokno logi naoi nokhla ni babaisawo chwkap thumsa khwlai eba bongfang o hor mwswngo. Maikham dwloi hor o hangwi sukrokno chario. Nok fangsa una khachi dulai chwmui hatio thahngo, hati paiwoi dakti dakti nogo kifilo, nokfangjwk khai fuchunga bai fw fw khe hor mwswngwi mai mwi songo. O jila kasaoi sikla sikli rok rwchapmung mwsamung funugo. Mwituno koprom khe je mwsamung, rwchapmung rok cherai tongfuru nukmani aborok wngkha o joni jong, lebangbumani, goria mwsamani mamita bokmani, mwswi sukmani. Dalsa dalsa mwsamung ni juda juda yapai, rwchabmung rwchabmung ni kokthai khorang bo juda judaa. Joto rwchabmung tei mwsamung ni logi borok dofani sabrwm brwm umorni tangrem, bohrokni tongmung chamung, tongmung,hwkuni pah gwdaljak tongo. Twipra hani twima twisa bufang yafang yongsa kuksa oroni nokbar watwi twiprasa rokni mwnwima, mwktwi khajama tongthokma ,  kha baijakma pah rwchabmung mwsamung khwm barmani hainw kiyogwi baro. Mwswi sumani mwsamung ni kokthai rok wngkha: toong tumade pung bwrasa tongtumade pung/tTongtumano pungo bwrwichwk, tongtumano pungo./swtwi swtwi swyanatwi sw khaile mosok thwi.

In` mwsamarok nukjago burasa khe ri twku kanjak, yago k ol, bwrwichwk rignai chamathwi kanjak twi langa horjak. Kham pungo gichong chong twi khamni yapai bai baksa mwsamung ni yapai bwsak tai phla hainw thansa wng kwsawo. Lebang mwsamung ni kokthai wngkha : le le le lebang bang lebang masabo mwchaya,/wakni bokhorogo  samthai, chini bokhorogo khum/cini bokhorogo thok motom chini bokhorog bafaidi. I mwsamung bwrwi chwla sapuljak, joto ni kongnwi khe wafikok tongo, kham pungmani logi logi mwsanairok yapiri selaio tei wafikhok bai wafikhok bwlaiio khwrap khwrap khe.  Okra chakra rokni khugo khwnawo hor mwswngwi abotwi khe mwsalai khe lebang birwoi failai phung pale pal twi homchango kwlai faikhe romwi chahlaio. Abo hai khe o joni jong, mamita twi bo bumung khwnajakya mwsamung ni juda juda rwchabmung kokthai twi yapaini bo juda juda bumul tongo. Pah mwsamung twi rwchabmung chini wmor ni salbrwm brwm ni sal, chini tongmung chahmung hukumu akoni nw songchajak. Borok dofani wmor ni simi khagoi aborokni kokno juda khe wansugwi manya. Aborok chini wmor ni  chini kwkumuni bahan bwthai borok dofani hwkumuni phla. Aborokno chini hukumuni yarwng. Abrokno karwi chini hukumu ni kokno kisafano wansuk manya.

Chini hwkwmu chini thwini logi gwdaljak, borok dofani rwchabmung mwsamung kwrwng wngnai bagwi rwng nogo thahngwi swrwngna nangya. Chwng jehai chawo nwngo hugo thahngo samung tango abotwi abotwi mwsamung nobo swrwng lalio. Saboba in` mwsamung rokni yapai mang rwkha, saboba kokthai swikha, saboba rwchabmung ni khorang bokkha khoroksabo siya, chini ma fa dabura nanu, achu chu chi song sirisitini simii abotwinw nugwi faibaimani, abotwi khe maising ni jora mai rabai khe nogo ugar dol rondok, rojong mayam supungwi mai khwlia tisaoi paibaikhe kami amchoi ni borok rok kuthum laiwi thansa khe rwchablaio, mwsa laio. Twipra hani borok twipa hani hachuk, hapung, bolong bwfang wafang jabra bobra malmata tokma toksa yongsa kuksa I rokni borok rok tomung chahmung, borokni laibuma, borok rokni tongthokma, kha khamjakma, pah funuk jago in` rwchabmung twi mwsamung rogo. Jotoni logi tongo, phla ni halok, hani twi aboroknw wngkha dofani hkumu ni yarwng.

Tabuk mol swlaikha, jora swlaikha, hakung kaisa jola thir tongya, jora thagwi tongya, bini raida twi bini lamtwi swkang thahngo twi aboni logi logi borok rokno bo swlaina kwlaio. Swkango borok dofani borok rokni wmor pah wngmari bini kami, bini huk, tei bini bolong no khonoi songch jago. Sal kwcham borok rokno agi rogo rwng nogo thahngnani nangya, fatar rogo thahngnani kwlaiya, samungbo nangya, tani hinkhe borok ni sanma bo bangthaya; huk tang khw bisi kwrwngwi chadorop mai mano, chikonsa  bisra tangkhe bisi kwrwngwi mwikwtwng machawo, boloonb to tongono, thwgwi chajaknai mwikuthwng twi mwswi, wak mwsandddwi ako mano. Thangwi tongnani bagwi pah manwi mano huk twi bolong ni simi. Tabuk o jora rok kwrwi kha, swlali baikha, hayung bai baksa yapiri sehwi borok dofano swlalinani kwlaikha. Tabuk o pola kwrwng wngya hinkhe thah ngwi tongnase kutuk wngwi kasakha. India bai baksa Twipra chwbamani ulo twi India ni freedom struggle ni uldrobo aimari kwrwi fatar hani borok rok sokfaima bai hani kwbwi bwsa rok bangkukya wng thahngkha, bolongrok sokomorwi nok huk tisajakkha, auli rok songchajakya je swlaimung ni kokrok borok rok wansuk  manya a swlalimung rokni bwskangno kwlaina nangkha. Abo somonoya swkangno tongmani bubagra communist rokni twifangmungbai bubagrano serjagwi choba wngkha, a choba phrw borok dofani je social system tongmani juhai chokdori, sordar, kami kasko akorok pah sokomol rijak baikha. Twipra ha bharot bai baksa thancha wngma ulo kaisa kotorma bangkundri borok dafano sipchakha, a bangkundri bai borok dofani yarwng rok bo lilak thahngbai kha, swlaimung sokfaikha pah jila, sokfaikha urbanisation, modernnisation, twi aborok bo borok dofani borok rokni nogo bohrokni wmoro hapnani chengkha. Borok dofani hukumu babainwi twi sampili khiklai jakkha, babaisa bai wanjwi rokni hukumu twi babaisa western ni hukumu. Sal brwm brwm ni tongmung chahmung, koklam, kokthai, rwchabmung, pah kolop jakbai kha. Aboni bising jotoni bara wanama singcha wngmari wngkha rajakhor agulini baithangno rajani bedek kwnwi sinimung rwnai debbarmarok kok borok no pogswgwi kok wanjwi no mani kok hwnwi gosi namani. Kok borok to pooksuk khano, chahmung, nwngmung, kanmung pah kokk bai hukumun roknobo pok baikha. ST facility mannani bagwi siminw bohrok baithahngni title tabuk romwi narwk kha. Abo belali wamana singcha kok.

Borok dofani borokrok wansuk nani rwngkha. Tabuk ni salo rwngya siya hwnkhe in` hayung saka baithangni tong mwthang romwi narwkna kok tuknai. Tong kwcham no swlaiwi mol logi jora ni sanmung no yachagwi yapiri  baksa selaiya hwnkhe ukologo uslok nani nangnai, komor nani nangnai. Aboni in` dofani borok rok dora dukhu wngfano bwsa bwtwino rwngnogo rohor nani nangkha, kammi yakarwi aulli rogo fainani chengo, kami amchoi ni tong kwchamni simi kogwi aulini tong kwtal bai sini laio. Bo rok dofani borok rok swkango huk tanglaiio, tabuk hatinawo ao chuwaio, kami tongnairok khe kani yakarwi chakri naoi auli o nok huk tangwi auli tongmung chamung bai baksa solri laio.Abotwi khe chini tongmung chamung pah jila sokfaio bankundri hainw kwtal kaisa swlaimung ni twi lamthai. In` swlaimungrok chini hukumu twi tong rwbaini yarwng yafang no romwi ninang rwo. Tabuk ni mol o sokfaikha TV, radio, nuk awai, kokduk, internet, satellite ako ako. Aborokni logi sokfaikha ha fatarni tongmung chamung, kanmung, chummung, pah no aborokni sampili bai kohop jakbaikha. Abo bai babaisa jehai kaham wngwi tongo twi babaisa twi hamya bo wngwi tongo. Tabuk ni salni cherai khonai sikla siklirok baithangni hukumu twi tong rwbai ni simi yarwngni simi kutulrw kutulrwk. Borok dofani mothani je raida tongbai mani jehai kami kaisko, kami okra, chokdori akorok pah nw kwma baikha.

Tabuk ni salo cherai rok okrano borom rwoi kok sanani rwnglia, gairing tamono hwn, tamo kanborok, chwm borok, tamono mui borok hwn bohrok siliya eba phwrwngjak lia. Siri sitini simi hukumu bosong ni simi bosongo twima ni twi kochokoma haikhe yafarjago tei yachakjago twi abo mothawo mwthang jagwi narwk jago. Abo baino dofani sinima, hukumu kwrwikhe dofani sinima bo kwmao. Tabukni salo bosong kwtal rokni bising je tongmung nukjak tongo abo wanama singcha twi kirima singcha koknw. Tani hwnkhe je tongmung chamung rokono chwng chini achu chuchu rokni simi yachak mani twi baithangni hukumu hwnwi khapangni pah tarma twi khasokma lukhwlai mwthang narwk laio abo no chwng chini ukolok ni bosong no yafar manya wng tongkha eba bohrok yachakkna gosiya wng tongkha. Hindi, western tei kwbuni dopha kotor rokni tong rwbai tei hwkumu borok dophano yongla tal monokma hai khe monok tongkha. Hwkumu no sokomol renai I twi lamthaino mwthak manya hwnkhe salcha hayung ni simi hwkumu borok komoroi thangoilaibuma o siminw tongthai rwjaganw. Phiya abono le wngnani rwmanya; chini chopreng, sainda, dangdu, kham hayung saka thaksuk thangnai, mamita, goria, lebang, hojagiri, mwsa jaglak, I hu hu rwchapmung bai nok bari khwna thok wnglak I kok rokno uansuk khe bwkha se kwphungoi phaio. Langma chonani naio. Borok dophani bwrwima rok sampai bwbar, phantok bwbar, thaiplok bwbar, mwswi yapai, chamwthwi bwbar ako ako bwmwl bwthai ni rignai tagoi kanoi lama, kami, auli mwchangri beraiglak kha I kokrok no uansuk khe swndrunani nango.

I hayungo pah civilization, pah hwkumu, pah tong rwbai no mwthangoi narukthai. Abo chini tangthar. Abono chwng khwlai manya hwnkhe laibuma chwngno nakarglak. Khwmni barrio dalsa swchuk khwm bar khe a khwm bari ni naithokma mwchangma tongya. Abo twinw I naithok hayungo juda juda dophani juda juda hwkumu thangoi tongyakhe hayungni mwchama nw phutlala wng thangnai. Kok kwbwi sana thangkhe chikon chikon dophani hwkumu rokno I hayung sakani simi komor rwnani bagoi phan sitra samung tang tongo. Babaisa hindi hwkumu tei babaisa bai western hwkumu chini hwkumu no chwbuk mwisle hai khe twruk twruk khe monok tongo. I kokkhlaimung I kakkhlaimung no tei chikon chikon dophani hwkumu ni saka je orai porai khwlai jak tongo abono mwthakna bogoi uansuk na kwrung , elem gwnang borok rok thancha wnglai uansuk nani belai khe nang tongkha. Boro dophani hwkumu no mwthang narukna bagoi lam rwtugoi kairing nani nangsuk tongkha. I rwtukma phatarni simi sokphaiglak, chini bising ni simi se ma sichrwnai, chengri nani nangnai. A jora kwthar phaioi chini doga bwoi tong phaikha. Boro dophani borok rok jora tongsani mwkrwi swrangdi.

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Buddhijibi Ba Intellectual Sabo

Tai Lukurogni Hamkwrai-o Bohrokni Tangthai

                Ajit Debbarma

"The real is not enough, through it's disguise

tell us the truth which fills the world with lights"

Hungary ni puila tai mung gwnang communist koklobnai Attila Jozcef (1905-1937 AD) ni koklobni kokthai no rwgwi chhini khabo kubi kokfirog rutug sano, o jora chini luku hoda ni hamkwrai tai lalibumano twiwi kha ferlalima, k  ok banglaimano rwgwi. Chini o hani luku bosong ni hamkwrai bai slogan simi tisai eba Ideology ni bana tisai bwswk tamo mankha, bumbur project chini ha tai luku bosongni hamkwrai o bwswk doro, kokborok ni hamkwrai ni lamawo saboni wansugma kubui, chini siri sitini sal kudukma romwi bojak Indegenous faith and practice no nokhagwi solok najak hindu tai khristan tongthar ni puitu tai tongmungrog ebrumwi tonglali thani chini himthai lama tai tangthai samung rog eba baithang ni kwkwrwk laibuma tai luku tongtharni yarwngo twi lunawo kubui ni lama biyang, tri eba Tripurabdo bisi kwtal ni salno rwgwi kok banglaithani kubui kokthum tamo- omotwi hai kok banglaijak swngmung rogni saka kubui kubui ni kk firok rutug-sano chini khaja kokthum kwkwrwk rogni sakawo bahcaui kokchugma (jukti) kwrak baikhe wajaktwi khajak.  

Omotwi koklam rogo kasa kaino chini luku bosongni kisa leader rog (?) ni khugo khwnao intellectual eba buddhijibi rogni role no rwgwi kwbangma kokrog. Fiyaba kaisa ha tai luku bosongni intellectual eba buddhijibi sabo? Academic digree gwnang rwngkwrwng wngkheno borogno buddhijibi hinwi de man?

O swngmung ni kokfirog rutugna bagwi hayung ni mung gwang hoda sikwrwng eba somaj bigyani tai wansukna kwrwng sabo tamo sakha tai wansugkha abororno rutugwi khursai kisa amjog naimano. O swngmungni saka sana athahngwi Binoy Ghose 1973 bisi o "Bangla Bidwatsomaj" o swikha-"Mohabidwan keu jodi ogadh gnyansamudre dub diye toliye thaken abong kebol bhudbhudi katen, jodi take dekha na jay, tai chinta bhavnar kotha jana najay ta hole gnyantososwi 'Scholar' holeo samajik orthe intellectual non." Robert Michles bo sakha-"It would be wrong to define intellectual in terms of academic examination." Binoy Ghose tai Robert Michles ni wansugmung rok amjog naikhai nukjago je academic Digree gwnang rwng kwrwng wngkheno borogno intellectual eba buddhi jibi hinwi manya.

Hwnkhe chwng sabono intellectual eba buddhijibi hwnnai? Intellectual eba buddhijibi rogni role eba samug bobtwi?

Boni saka sana thahngwi Itally ni munggwngna marxbadi pondit Antionio Gramsci bini 'Prision Note Book' (1998) bijabo swikha,-"all men are intellectual, one could there fore say; but not all men have in society the function of intellectual." Yang America ni munggwnang wansugna kwrwng Edward W. Said bini "Representation of intellectual" (1996) bijabo swikha-'The intellectual is an individual with specific public role in society that can not be reduced simply to being a faceless proffesseional, competent member of a class first goiong about her/his buisiness." Bo taibo swikha je -"The purpose of the intellectual activity is to advance human freedom and knowledge.' O jora hayng ni jotoni sai mung gwnang bhasa bignyani tai America ni kha kotor wansuk kwrwng Noam Chomsky 1993 bisio Zed magazine o Michael Albert bai koklam salaifuru intellectual eba buddhijibi rogni saka boni wansukma kokrog sukrubwi skhaa. Chomsky ni sajak  kokno kokwanjwi bai swlaikhe saimano,-"Amar kachhe ei shobdotara temon gurutwo nei. Amar jibone sotyikarer intellectual je sob luker sannidhye asechi ba jader ami jani, tader modhye onek tothakothito intellectual er pesha theke bohu durer lok. Bohu lok jader intellectual shromik bola jay orthat jara kaja akoren tader mon diye tader modhye onekemon sob kaj niye byesto jar kerani sulobh. Jemon academic pandityer prai oonektai asole keranir kaj." Chomsky taibo sakha je -"Sodorthe bolle ami tader kotha bolbo jara bibhinno bishoye bhabchhen, se so bojar cheshta korchhen, nanadike onusondhan kokrchhen ebong take prokrito orthe bhasa dite ba prokash korte chaichhen -ei hochhe prokrito intellectual er jibon."

Intellectual eba buddhi jibi rogni role no twiwi sana thahngwi Chomsky bini "Power and Prospect" (1996) bijabo swijak kokno kokwanjwi bai sailai saimano,-"Buddhijibi matrei dayitwo holo manob swartho bishoye sotyo ke prokash koraa ebong sothik shrotader kachhe sei sotyo ke pouchhe deowa." Fiyaba sakamkhursajak hayung ni mung gwnang wansukna kwrwng rogni khursajak kok tai Chomsky ni sajak k okno rwgwi naikhe chhini luku bosongni sinai nuknai rwng kwrwng eba lukuhamkwrwai wansuknai tai (?) rogni role bobtwi nukjak? Borogni intellectual integrity bwswk tong? Tamole hwnba chwng nugo kisa Carrierist (Service carrieer eba Political Carrier) rog baithang ni  hamkwrai eba Carrier no twiwi simi kudijak tai kafrajaaka. Borogni toongmungrok nuk khe Nani A Phalkiwala ni kokthaino muitu mano: "Unfortunately ….today 'intellectual' means a man who is intellegent enough to know chich side of his bread is buttered." Chini ha ni luku bosongni hamkwrai bai sathai kokno -kubui kokno sitwtwibo jorawo saya siring siring tongnairog laibuma siniwi narwganw, Karl Marx samani 'History's Cunning' ni remo kwlayanw.

Chwng laibumawo nugo je kaisa hani lukurogno kha rwi hamjaknai baithang ni peshagoto (professional) samung no karwibo lukubosong ni hamkwrai o podre pod samung ni bisingtwi sak gwdalo, wansugo, funukna hinkhe -Bidyasagor hai o jorani mung gwnang Academic figure Sonskrit College ni Principal ni samung no karwibo 1885 bisio bidhoba bibaho no twiwi kolom romkha, tai bwskang tongwi samung tangkha. Bisi rasa ni ulo 1954 bisio America ni nobel sokat manjak bignyani Linus Paolling bini bignyan ni samung gobeshona no karwi bo hayung ni choba mwthakna tai tong kwchang boui tonna bagwi kha kotor khe kok sakha tai samung tankhga. Bini bagwi Paolling no 1962 bisio toong kwchang ni bagwi tai waisa Nobel sokat rwjagkha. Mung gwnang bhasha bignyani Chomsky bo bini peshagoto samung bhasa bignyan ni gobeshona tai fwrwng na karwibo hayung ni lukurokni hamkwrwi america ni bhiyetnam akromon tai samrajyo badi nitirogno selengei kha kotor khe ko sawo kebengwi bachawo.

Normoda Bachao andolon ni bokhrok Medha Patkar TATA Foundation of social science o khoroksa research scholer ni samungo habwi field work khwlaina thahngwi normoda project ni bagwi nokhagjak lukurogni khairogma singcha tomung nugwi research scholer ni samung yakarwi protibad andolon tabuk bo khwlai tongo. Mung gwnang swikwrwng Arundhati Roy boni booker prizni koti koti rang normoda bachao andolon ni rang khoro rwi andolon khwlai tongo. Chini bharot hayung ni swadhinota andolon tai banladesh ni bhasa andolon rwgwi achaijak swadhinota andolon rogo swikwrwng tai buddhi jibi rokni yasi kaijagnai role nukjago. Artist rogni samajik daybodwota bwswk tongna nang boni saka sana thahngwi Roma Ronla tai Annodashonkor Roy no sakha, -"Je manus srtist se manus kebol art chorcha kore khanto hobena, se bhalor sopokhe o monder bipokkhe propagonda korbe; Volteyer of Jolar moto onnyaer biroddhe mosijuddho chalabe. Robindro nath hai swikwrwng tai wansukna kwrwng bo swadhinota andolonni jora baithang andolono ongkhorya, rajnini dolo habya, fiya ingrej shasono bebengwi swadhinota ni bagwi khha kotor khe kok sakha tai samung tangkha bini swimung bai.

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Baba Goria Mufuk-ni de Tongmani ?

    Dr. Atul Debbarma

Baba Goria mutai mufukde tongmani? Dainik Sombad Potrika o (18/01/06) khoroksa mungwnang kok khalnai swima tongo je  Goria mutai Mufuk kotorma 'goirokya' ni simi se ongkhorwi faio. Aro a swikha je Goirokya Mufuk ni Goirokya>Goroiya>Goria wngwise tabukni Tiprarok ni suhrimani  Goria mutai ongkhorwi faio, abo choba ni mutai tei bisi raba ni simise surijagwi faio. Mo kok kaisa belai kha dukhu nangmani koko, tamo hinmale abo dofa kaisani puitu khaijakma mutaini kok. Tai baksa bororok sawo je  Goria mutai swkango sikamrogni tongmase, Moharaj Dhonyo Manikyo ni amlose sipai ojoma Raikwchak song kuchuk Hasikam bisi 1500 AD o tubui faio, bono chini baithang ni mutai hinwi surina kok kwrwi, bono surina karwi khibise rithai. Tai dolsa bororok funukna naio je Goria mutai Hindu rokni Gonesh mutaini swlaijagwi ongkhor faimase. Kebo khaiba salio je abo bijlani (adi ros) mutai se.

A kok khwna khai puitu thahngnai rok kha miling malang chajagwi pingsa khai khorok mihimwi thahngjaknai. Mo kokrok khwnai kukubui de hinwi saisung sakno ma swhngna nangkha, Sirisiti ni simi suriui faimani baba Goria no, bisi burum bisi kwtal fainai bisi kaham kwrwng khai thahngna wngthu, taibo rangri, mai, khul kwbangkhai manthu hinwi surijakma ni abode mufuk eba khaiba sikam rokni mutai tongmani!

Dolsa bororok 'Globalisation' ni mung naui hating kotorma ni tomungno tai tongtharno swrwngna hinwi chango rikhaui ongkhor baikha, hayung kotormani 'bororok' bai gwdalna bagwi. Globalisation ni bagwi hating kotormani joto bororokba bongni sirisitini tongtharno de swkang khibi ribaikha? Boni bagwi swkang Tiprasa rok khaiba jotoni puila sirisitini simi suriui faimani 'Tipra tongthar' no thapla khibima baling soroi hai khai khibi rina ni ma nangkha. Tai aboni bagwi no baksa bororok thwih bai baksa sapuljak Goria mutai no mufuk eba bui sikamni hinwi awai khaina chengkha. Kosong tongnai Tiprasa rokni bwkha o chugli swgwi sakni tongtharni mutai baba Goria no selengma kariui twiklek khibima jaga khibi rinani kha tungsarikha.

A baksa borok rokni no masa mangnwi anobo hai hinwi sakhai ani bwkha bo wansukma fwnang rikha. Fia sak baithang buini hai khai kosong  kosong bongni kokno haino khe kubui hinwi gosiui naui manlia. Aboni ulo ang bijab rogo naitukna chengkha, a mutai ni mungwi tamo swijak tong chini kwcham bijab rogo. A bijab rokni kokrokno ang oro kicha sukrubwi khursawanw.

Tipra  ni laibuma Rajmala eba Bubagratang o swijak tongo, je Bugra Tripur belai themrang, thenta tai fan gwnang tongmani. Bo kwbangma hasa (raijoy) ni bugra rokno mechenwi sak sakno jotoni kotoro bugra hinwi sakhlaikha. Abo simi bai bini kha bathak lia, ulo bo baithangno no mutai kwthang hinwi saklaiwi Tipra  hasa ni lukurokno bongni sirisiti ni simi palai faimani, surimani mutai rokno surina kebengkha tai bebakno a mutai rokno surima karna dagikha. Hasa ni joto bororokno bini akbaithang no surina bagwi sakhlaikha. Mwtwi khai hasawo tongthar kwrwi wngmabai hasani bebak bororok mutai kotor Subrai no surilaikha. Boni ulo mutai kotor Sibrai bugra Tipra  no buthar paio, bini yagulo Tipra  hasa o oroi poroi nangna chengkha. Afuru no Tipra  ni joto lukurok mutai kotoro Sibari no surifikha borogno bugra kaham masa rina bagwi. Bongni surima bai kha furjagwi mutai Sibrai borokno afuru dagikha je bohrok jefuru bongni sirisiti ni simi palai faimani 'Mutai chibrwi' no suriui kha fur ri mannai afuru no Tipra  hasa o isiri Hiraboti ni ogo chwla masa achai nai. Afuru isiri Hiraboti khabai khukbai in` mutai chibrwi rogno diyaiwi bongni kha no sepengwi mankha, tai bini ogo bugra Subrai achaikha. Bugra Subrai hayayung  achugwi pai tai waisa haino hai mutai chibrwi ni kaya rokno mutai nogo achukri fikha logi logi borogno Chontai rokbai khai suhrina chengfikha. In` mutai chibrwi wngkha Tipra bugra rogni tei Tiprasa rokni bosong ni mutai.

Rajmala-o o sirisiti ni simi palaijak mutai rokni mung wngkha, 'Hor, Uma, Hari, Ma Bani, Kumar, Ganesh, Brahma, Prithibi, Ganga, Abdi, Agni, Kamesh tai Himadri'.

Fia in` mwtwi ni mungrok swkang hai khe Sanskrit ni mung tongmaya, abo rajmala swinai rokbo gosima tongo. Kailash Chandra Singha bo a kokno no gosio. Amo le kwcharo Kokborok ni rajmala no kokwnajwi o swlai furu bamonsa rok bongni kokbai gothokna twih khai mwtwini mung kwtal khe swlai rimase. Kailash Chandra Singha bini "Rajmala Ba Tripurar Itihas" o o mutai chibrwi ni kokborok mung swithani masa mutaini mung 'Gorai' hinwi swilangkha. Tipra  ni kwbangma itihasbid bo mo swlaijakma kokno gosio. Swkango mo mutai rok ni mung tongma wngkha, 'Mutaikotor eba Sibarai, Ama, Sangroma, Mailuma, Khuluma, Hachukma, Noksuma, Lampra, Goria, Kalia, Thumnairok, Bonirok, Akhata, tai Bikhita,'. Binoy Debbarma ni "Anglo-kokborok dictionary" kokrwbam ni twikhai o mutai chibrwi rok wngkha 1) Ama 2)Sangrongma 3) Mailuma 4)Khuluma 5)Twima 6)Hachwkma 7)Noksuma 8) Ker 9)Nakri 10)Lampra 11)Akhata 12) Bikhata 13)Kalia 14)Goria . Rajmala ni kokno cherwi naikhai chwng nugo je Tipra  hasa ni lukurok siristi simi no kharchi mutai no suriui faimani. Tai a kharchi ni mutai chibrwi ni bising khoroksa wngkha baba Goria. Tai abo bo chwng rajmala o sai mano je Subrai/ Trilochon bugra chahma ni yagulo bo tai waisa haino hai 'mutai chibrwi eba kharchi no surina chengfikha, tabuk bo a mutai rok Tipra  hawo surijak tongkhu.

In` kokrok no karwi Tipra  hasa o haino luku rokni khuktwi kereng kothoma wnwgi chuchu bora ni simi kaisa khukni simi tai kaisa khugo khai kochogwi faimani tongo. A kothoma twi bo haino sajago. Salsa bugra Subrai ni buma Hiraboti twisao twi khokna hinwi thahng tongma jora bo khwnakha, 'Ama ama chengno mwthangdi' hinwi chirik mokro wngwi kablai tongmani. Afuru a kabama khwnai thahgnwi nugwi kha je borchuk bufang sakase mutai makchibrwi kakap kokop wngjak, yang tolao misib boira masa kotoroma borokno nasingwi rokojak. Bo afuru buji mankha je misibai se a mutai rok rifrikjagwi bufang saka kasai ma tongsio. Isiri Hiraboti logi logi no bini khajani risa khengwi a misib boira ni saka finkhlai rikhai a misib jolima hamwi aroni kutulwi thahngkha. Afuru no Hiraboti a mutai chibrwi no nogo tubui nukhung ni mutai hinwi mutai bokona chengkha. Aboni ulo Tipra  bugra kharchi mutai no bosongni nukhung ni mutai hwnwi chongwi mutai nok tangwi suhrina chengwi faikha. In mutai chibwi ni bisingo khoroksa mutai wngkha chini sirisitini surimani baba 'Goria'.

 

Bharot ni khoroksa sikwrwng Professor Suniti Kumar Chatterjee Boro/Borok dofano twiwi swijak bijab "Kirata-Jana-Kriti" o Tiprasa rokni mutai chibrwi ni mung swithani masa ni mung 'Goria' hinwi salang kha. Bini koktwi Goria ni kok bothoma wngkha borok kufur. Tipra  ni khoroksa mwkhang kwchwng, swikwrwng tai Tipra  tongthano sikuknai, bini hukumu no twiwi kwbangma bijab swilangnai Alindralal Tripura bo swilangmani "Tripurar Upajati Sanskriti o Tantrik Chikitsa" bijabo Tiprasa rokni mutai chibrwi ni mung swilangthani Goria ni mung swih kwlangkha. Priyabrata Bhattacharjee bini bijab "Tribal Pujas and Festivals in Tripura" o mutai chibrwi ni kokborok mung swithani Goria mutai ni mung bo swilangkha. Omesh Saigal bini bijab "Tripura"(1978) o Tiprasa rokni mutai chibrwi ni mung swihmani bisingo baba Goria ni mung swilangkha. Bijab "India-The Land and the People, Tripura" o Tiprasa rokni mutai chibrwi ni mung khuthani  S.N Guha Thakurata baba Goria ni mung kaisa swikha. Hai khe oro chwng nukkha je Tiprasa rokni surimani Baba Goria mutai bongni surimani mutai chibrwi ni bising ni no khoroksa mutai tai bono sirisitini simino suriwi faijak mani.

 

Abono karwi Mg. Chandra Kanta Murasing bini kokkhal "Kharchi mutai puila Khorok chi tongmani de?" o mutai rokni mung swimani bising masa mutai ni mung wngkha Goria. Tripura ni khoroksa mung gwnang Rajniti khainai Mg. Shyama Charan Tripura bini kokkhal "Kharchi Puja Samparke Kichhu Ajana Tathyo" o  mwtai chibrwi ni mung swithani kaisa mutai ni mung 'Goria' hinwi swilangkha. Mg. Nityorai Taimang bini kokkhal "Tipra bai Bororog ni mwtai palaima twi kok kisa" o mutai suhsai nathani je mutai rokni mung swikha aroni bising masa ni mung wngkha 'Goria'. Bangladesh ni mung gwnang swikwrwng Mg. Surendrala Tripura bini kokkhal "Tripura Ekti Jati" o Tiprasa rokni mutai chibrwi rokni mung nathani 'Goria' mutai ni mung namani nukjak kha.

O kokrogo chwng naina mano je Rajmala no karwi kwbangma kwrwng bijab swilangnai rok Goria no Tiprasarokni mutai chibrwini bising masa mutai hinwi swihkha. Oro tabuk kok kasawo je Tiprasarok bufuruni simi Mutai chibrwi eba kharchi no surina chengkha? A kokni sakhlaimung o chwng nugo je mutai chibrwi wngkha Tiprasa rokni sirisitini mutai. Bufuruni simi o mutai rijakna chengkha abo soikhai chethorwi khoroksa bo saui manglak. Tamo hinmale abo Tipra Civilisation bai baksa gwdalwi kasai faikha. Abono tumungbo gosiya hinkhai bugra Subrai ni jorani simi le songchagwi no faikha a kokno saui mano. Tumung mutai chibrwi no afuruni simi hinkhai Goria mutai bo Subrai /Trilochon raja ni jorani simi no suhrijagwi faikha.

 Tipra  tongthar no twiwi 'Traipur Sanghita' mungwi Alindralal Tripura bijab kansa swilangma tongo. A bijabo Mg. Tripura baba Goria ni achai kothoma khotolo Goria mutai bahai khai Tipra hawo suirjakna chengsakha abo no kaham khai fologwi swi kwlangkha. A Goria ni achai kothoma o swijak tongma khai hai, borok ni bising jotoni swkang in` hawo achainai wngkha Dangaifa bai Dangaima. Salsa ochai bokhorok Sukundrai Dangaifano dagikha je bo bini hasa no bui kebengnai kena nai rokni yakni mwthangna ma khwlainai. Afuru ochai kotor Sukundrai no Dangaifa swhngkha 'bahaikhai?' A kok swhngjak khai sukundrai bono sakha, 'Nwng chobao paina bagwi baba Goria no suridi, abo ani no tai kaisa mung,'. Afuru a mutai bono bebak swbaiwi sakha, 'angno in` hayung ni jotoni slai kotor mutai Mutaikotor, angno waisa ba Burasa wngo, waisa kheba Subrai, waisa ba Kaleya, waisa ba Narasing, tai waisaba Goria.' Mg. Tripura a bijbo Goria mutai no surimani raida bo sukrubwi swiwi kwlangkha. Hai khe chwng Mg. Tripura ni bijabni koktwi bo nugo je Dangaifa Dangaima ni jora ni simi no baba Goria no Tiprasa rok choba tai hamkrai ni mutai hinwi suriui faimani. Tai a tongthar surima tabuk jora Tipra  hawo kubwi wngwi palaijagwi tongkho.

Rajmala ni twih chwng nugo Tipra hasa ni puila bugra khor tongmani Tribeg, ulo Dimasa eba hakwchar/Kasar bugra bai paiya wngwi Kholongma-o sehwi ma faikha. Aroni simi sehwi tai waisa Rangamati/Udaipuro ma faikha, kwcharo thuruk bugra rok bai paiya wngwi Amarpuro bo bugra khor achukrima ni sai manjago. Paithago khai sehwi kwcham Aguli o faikha. Fia bisi mwira swk ulo khai tabuk ni kwtal Aguli o sehwi tubui faifikha.

Rajmala o swijak mo rajakhorno karwi bo taibo kwbangma jagawo Tipra ni bugrarok rajakhor khwlai langma kokbo nukjago; aborok wngkha Sambul Nagar, Ratasora, tai Thanangsi akorok. Thanangsi o je Tipra ni raja khor tonglang mani abo Rev. James Long ni 'Chronicles of Tripura' o swijak tongo. Aro swihlang kha, 'in the city of Thanansi which was the capital of Tripura untill the Marauding expedition of the kukis caused it to be removed to some securer place'.

 Oro chwng nugkha je Thanangchi waisa Tipra hasa ni rajakhor tongmani, tai kuki rokbai kaisa choba-o paiya wngwi chini suhrimani mutai baba Goria ni kayano yakarwi ma kabukhwna. Rajmala ni twih chwng mo kokbo saimano je baba Goria ni kaya eba mwkhang Thanangsi hachwkni ni tubui faimani.  Maharaj Dhonyo Manikya ni jorawo a kaya no sipai ojoma Raikwchak ni yaktwi khai segwi tubufikha.

Laibuma ni kok no chethroi naikhai nugo je Tipra ni bugra rok jefuru bo bui hani bugra bai chobawo kechenwi ma kharkha bohrog bonbni bosong ni mutai 'mutai chibrwi' no logio twiwi kharkha. Sakni langma ni slai fano a bosong ni mutai no bohrok hamjagwi logi twifrewi kharkha. Abai no baksa baksa sawo je swkango mutai chibrwi ni kaya sakfang gwnang tongmasi wngna, fia chobao paiya wngwi ma kharfuru twithokya wngwi bokhrok simi tanwi twlangwi khahrfuru ni simi no a mutai chibrwi ni kaya mwkhang simi wngwi thahngo.

Thanangsi o rajakhor tongfuru sikam rokbai choba o paiya wngwi ma kharfuru no Tipra ni bugrarok bongni mutai chibrwi ni bising Goria ni kaya no twlangwi khahrlang manlia, arono khibiwi ma kabukha. Ulo a Goria ni kaya no segwi nainani Tipra ni sipairok tal char romwi choba ma rilaikha. Afuru no mufuk masani bwchango warukkhui bono choloiwi thanangsi hachwk saka kasakha, joto Tiprasa kwthaui choba thahnglai kha. Jamatia, Riang, Debbrama, Halam, Nuwatia bebak sikam rokbai choba rikha, ulo sikamrok chobawo chenkha. Afuru no Tipra sipaini sengkrak themrang dol Jamatia rok jotoni swkang a Goria ni kaya no segwi nakha tai afuru ni simi abo Jamatia dofani wngwi pujijagwi fiakha. Je kaya manlia bohrok khai ba je jani ja manmani no Goria ni kaya chonogwi surina nangkha. Afuru no baksa ba kohl mankha, baksa ba trisul mankha, tai baksa ba wasok manwi faikha tai bisi brung bisi kwtalo baksa ba salsini tai baksa ba salsa ni bagwi baba Goria no suriui faikha.

Oro tai thaisa kok khursana naio je Jomatia dofani Goria mutai ni kaya rangchakni tongmani, tei aro 110 Tring swijak tomgmani. Ayang twihbo nukjago je baba Goria ni kayano surimani omor bisi 1306 wngkha. Hai khai orobo nukjago je baba Goria ni omor bisi raba(500) se hinmani kok tal tai soiya.

Kokya ni kokno gosiui fano nakha je Goria mutai sikam rokni no tongmani. Hai khai oro kwbangma swhngmung bachai faio. Tumung fano Tiprasa rok Goria no sikam rokni aroni tubui faikhai, chwng tubui faima ulo sikam rok a Goria no suriui tongfina kok, soikhai sana thahngkhai khristan wngya sani swkang jora, kokkhai bisi rasa ni kicha swkang joratwi, tai a Goria no twiwi bongni mwsamung rwchabmung ni hukumu fano tongna kok. Fia abtwi mungsa fano nukjakya. Taisa jai khai o kokrokno khursai naithai.

Laibumano chethroi naikhai chwng nugo je kunu dofani borok buini dofani mutai no sana thahngkhai kechen dofani mutai rokno tubui mutai surima nukjakya. Ulta sakni mutai no se buini saka fankhai finkkhali rimani nukjago. In` jaga Tiprasa rok ba tamungwi kechen sikamrokni mutai no tubui surinai? Abotwi keboni tongtharo nukde nukjak? Tamo hinmale mutai no surima wngkha tongthar ni kok, bwkahbai puitu khaimani kok. Itihaso chwng nugo je Thuruk bugra rok gilama Hindu rokni mutai ni kaya rokno sekproi twlang mani. Fia abono twlangwi bohrok kebo suriya, a kaya ni ranchakno takswbai nana bagwi simi se twlango, ulta Hindu rokni saka bongni thuruk tongtharno fanbai finkhlai rilangkha. Hai khe tipra ni bugra rok tai lukuroko bo kechen sikamrokni kayano tubuwi bongni mutaino suhrinani thaisa kok kwrwi.

Tipra rok ni bosong bai kwrwngjak kaisa dofa wngkha Boro/Borok. Bongni tongtharo Goria eba Goria no solnai suhrijaknai mutai de tong abono bo chethroi naithai kwalalio. Tamo hinmale bohrok bai gwdalma tongkhai arobo kaisa nukmari wngnai, tei Goria je sirisitini simino Tiprasa rokni tongmani sijak suknai.  In` jaga Mg. Nityarai Taimang bini kokkhal "Tipra bai Boro rogni mwtai palaima kok kisa" o swikha,-'Boro rogni Gorja puja wngkha kaisa samajik porisuddhimulok anusthan. O puja Boro rogni jotoni kotor ter "buisagu' ni ulo songchjago..'. 'Gorja' shobdsni ortho wngkha bipod apod rokno nodini twio kochogwi rohorma…. Tipra rogni 'boisu' (boro rogni boisagu hai) terni salsini ni ulo o Goria puja wngo. Boro rogbai baksa no hinwi mano. Orthat 'boisu' terno rwgwi khatung khaja khwlai ter palaymani ulo hugni samungo yag rwna swkang o 'goria' puja eba hamkwrwini bagwi kwthar khwlaimung ni samung chengjago.'

Oro sathai kwlaio je Tiprasa rokni Goria mutai buisu ni taini salni simi no chengsa jagma nukjago. Tamo hinmale in` salsini ni jora bono karwi nukhungo tai mungsa mutaino fano suriui manya. Jomatia dofa rokni bising buisu ni taini salni simi salsini romwi  sena jora Goria no suhrijago. Debborma rokni bisingo je salsinsi romwi suhriui thahng mannai khai buisuni taini salni simino  Goria no mutai khwlai manfu. Fia aboswk kwrak kwthar mutai no salsini romwi raidatwi suhri nani tugo hinwi tabuktwi jora khwlianai kwrwikha. Haikhai chwng saimano je Tiprasa rokno karwi bohrogbai halok kwrwngjak Boro rogni bo Goria no solnai mutai 'Gorja' tongo.

Tai kaisa kok kasama nukjago, abo wngkha Goria mutai bai Ganesh no suhsalai mani. Tamo hinmale Goria bo maikhul rangri wngna bagwi tai Ganesh bo aboni bagwi no. Mo kokrok bo Tiprasa rok no lama juda funugwi kororina naimase. Sana thahng khai joto dofani bororok ni mutai no kaham ni bagwi, kwplai wngna bagwi no. Ayang twih khai hayung kotorma ni joto dofani kaisaya kaisa mutai le tai dofa kaisa ni kaisaya kaisa mutai bai gwdalnai no. Hai hinwi a kainai mwtai thansa eba kaisa wngmanya. Goria no surima ni raida rok bebak Tiprasa rokni tai kubuni mutai rokno suritwi, tok, thakhum, pun, misib rok riui ochai suruio. Fia yango Hindu rokni Goneshle posad simise chanai, bamonbai surijaknai. Gonesh khai ba mayung bokhorok gwnang mutai, fia Tiprasa rokni bising jomatia dofani Goria ni mutai ni kaya abtwi nukjakya. Gonesh khai ba rang rini mutai fia Goria le choba, maikhul, rangri, hamma chama, tong kwchang cha kwchang ni bagwi. Gonesh no khwlaio september talo Maharashtro o simi, tai Goria no surijago april talo Tripura tai Bororok bai. Tiprasa rok tumung swrwngma tong khai bongni gana tongnai wanjwi rokni aroni swrwngthai tongmani fia wanjwirok bai Goneshno mutai no surima nukjakya. 

Soi kubui kokno sana thahngkhai Tiprasa sarok keboni tongtharno eba Hindu rokno swrwngma kwrwi. Ulta Hindu rokse sirisiti ni Borok hodani  tongtharno swrwngkha. Joto sinai elem kwrwng rokno mo kokno gosio je chango rikwrwi mwsabukurkan nai, bolong halong tai hachwk hathai saka tongnai, chuwak nwgngnai, chuwak thokjaknai, hadwlwi o mal matarok bai tongnai, khakwlai Sibrai mutai eba mutai kotor (Mohadev) tai keboniya, Mongoloid eba Boro/Borok rogni mutai no tongmani. Yang khai sajago Gonesh wngkha mohadev ni no bwsla masa. Tai Tipra rok khai sawo je Goria wngkha mutai kotor Sibrai ni no tai kaisa filma mung. Ved ni bising jotoni kwcham Rigvedo abai no mutai kotoro eba mung filjak Mahadev ni mung tai bini bwsarok gonesh, kartik, lokhi abtwi rokni mung kwrwi.

Kebo sawo je Goria wngkha Tiprasa rokni bijla (Adi ros) ni mutaise, tamo hinmale Goria mwsafuru ni rwchabmung rogo abtwi hai bijla kokthai ni rwchabma nukjago. Oro chwng kicha jaikhai naichom thai kwlaio a rwchabmung rokno, tai a rwchab mwsa mani jora rokno. Chwng sai mano je Goria mwsamani khe mutai rima paibai sarik sal thahng twtwi chuwak fekrokro wngma jorase. Jefuru borok ni khorokni lachima kirima ongkhorwi thahngjak. Goria mwsamani chengfuru puila le kokthai kaham rokbaise chengjago. Jetwi khai- chana hinwi bo faiya, nwngna hinwibo faiya, chini didale kha kwlai hinba bono nainase fio, balore balo balo…Goria wasok kongbai bai, topsimade bafai fai…balo re balo balo…masua ranga twio klaibo abarsa manyasa thahngya, Goria raja beraina fayu rangkhoksa manyasa thahngya. Mo no karwi Jamatia dofani rwchabmung rok taibo in` kokno kubui khai funugo…o babayui o babayui, baba Goria rajayui o babayui, babayui babayui baba Goria rajayui, gumtini twybai nini yakung sujanw o babayui, Goria rajayui dhon tubudi jon tubudi o babayui o babyui, maibar tubudi khulbar tubudi o babayui.. abtwirok. Mwtwi khai rwchabmani ulo jefuru kara thwngthok halok ni bwrwi rokno nugo afuru mwsanai kefekrok tai tongmanya wngwi buprangjwk kwlainai ebai bachwi kelaima rokno nuk khai bijla kothai bai rwchabna chwnglaio tai hai khai no Goria ni rwchabmungo kicha bijla kokthai habwi faikha.

Hai hinwi Goria mutai bijla ni mutwi wngwi thahngya khu. Tamo hinmale a mwsanai rok jefuru baba Goria ni wasok no twio khibiui nogo kifil fai nukhung ni kok swhngfuru chwng nugo abo bebak nukhung ni hamna chanani kokmangse. Jetwi khai- 1)Baba Goria: O goriamani singru? Singaru-Oi, Baba Goria-mo nogo tamo? Singaru-Tokthu. Baba Goria-In` Nogo Rangchak richak pungthu. 2)Baba Goria- O goriamani singru? Singaru-Oi, Baba Goria- mo nogo tamo? Singaru-Muisele. Baba Goria-In` bisio hamya chaya kasle. 3)Baba Goria-O goriamani singru? Singaru-Oi, Baba Goria-Mo nogo tamo? Singaru-Suchi. Baba Goria-In` nogo taklai bisi khusi. 4)Baba Goria-O goriamani singru? Singaru-Oi, Baba Goria-mo nogo tamo? Singaru-wasok. Baba Goria-In` nogo bisi kwtalni huk hok. 5)Baba Goria-O goriamani singru? Singaru-Oi, Baba Goria-mo nogo tamo? Singaru-Faruk. Baba Goria-In` nogo bisi kwtalni huk ruk. 6) Baba Goria-O goriamani singru? Singaru-Oi, Baba Goria-mo nogo tamo? Singaru-khum maikai. Baba Goria-Bisi kwtalni maikhul kai. 7)Baba Goria-O goriamani singru? Singaru-Oi, Baba Goria-mo nogo tamo? Singaru-Wathai. Baba Goria-Bisi kwtalni mai-khul thai. 8)Baba Goria-O goriamani singru? Singaru-Oi, Baba Goria-mo nogo tamo? Singaru-Mwswi kosok. Baba Goria-In` bisio rabaiya thumbaiya sok. 9)Baba Goria: O goriamani singru? Singaru-Oi, Baba Goria-mo nogo tamo? Singaru-Myung. Baba Goria-Gairing khungba khungdok mai rung. 11)Baba Goria-O goriamani singru? Singaru-Oi, Baba Goria-mo nogo tamo? Singaru-Kerang. Baba Goria-In` nogo khutruk kuplung rang.

Mwtwi khai baba Goria swhngfuru thaisa kok bijla salai mani nukjakya. Haiya khai baba Goria no surifuru bo nukhung ni hamna chahna, hamya chaya katina, tai bisi kwtal o hukni maikhul thaina karawi abtwi mungsa bijla samung ni bagwi baba Goria ni thani Tiprasa rok sano hinwi khwnaya. Aboni bagwi no baba Goria no bijla ni mutai hinwi salaima ni bo belai chaya tai lam kororina ni koktisama se kwlaiio.

Sakawo swijakmatwi khai nukjak kha je baba Goria mutai Tiprasa ni thani sirisitini simino surijagwi faimani, tamo hinmale Boro rog bo bono soltwi Gorja mutai khwlai tongkhu. Abono gosiya fano Tipra ni laibuma Rajmala tai kerang kothomatwi saui mano je mutai chibrwi Tiprasa rokbai Subrai rajani furuni simi khwlai faijag tongmani. Tai a mutai chibrwini bising mutai masa wngkha Baba Goria, haikhe chwng bono Subrai raja ni simi suhriui fai tongma ni. Abono bo gosiya hinkhe Jamatia dofarok bisi 1306 romwi khwlai tongmano fano ma gosithai. Haikhe oro mo nukjak kha je Goria raja je mufuk no surite surite chamani hinwi kok kasamale soi soi tatal se. Sikam rokni aroni tubui fiao hinmabo aswkno tatal tai nangya kok. Baba Goria no hindu rokni gones mutai bai suhsama bo ereng ereng samung kwrwi rokni samung tai Tiprasa rok ni tongthar no buini tubuo hinwi chikon tai kusu khai funukna naimase. Kebo kebo Goria no bijla ni mutai hinwi funukna naimabo kosong puitu khai nai rokni khawo selengma eba sakchikon rina naimase kwlaio. Tamo hinkhai tabuk mo kokrok je tatal abono no flang flang khai oro funuk rijak kha. Mo bebak swimung tai kok banglai mung kosong Tiprasa rokni puitu thangmani tongthar lamani norna naimase, baba Goria ni mungwi selengma karina naimase. Mwtwi kokrok no chwng khunju muthubwi, mokol mukumwi tai bukhuk kholobwi ma tongthai tai baba Goria ni mungo sak sakno yakarwi riui bini mung kwtharno suhrithai.

 

 Bijab khiljakma:-1)Rajmala-Kailash Chandro Singho. 2) The Chronicle of Tripura-Rev. James Long. 3) Kirata Jana Kriti-Suniti Kumar Chottopadhya. 4) Troipur Sanghita-Alindralal Tripura 5) Tribal Pujas and Festivals  in Tripura- Priyabrata Bhattacharjee 6) Tripura-Omesh Saigal 7) India-The Land And The People, Tripura- S.N Guha Thakurata 8) Tripurar Upojai Sanskriti o tantrik chikitsa 9) Yakhwtwng-2000 Mukumu bwlai 10) Raima-June 2002 11) Anglo-Kokborok Dictionary-Binoy Debbarma. 12) Goria-1414 Tring, Sodor Goria Utsob 13) Buisu Horsini-Nagendra Jamatia 14) Khorang-2005.

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Borok Mung

  Hachuk Khorang

 Hayungo kupulung bebak manwi ni no mung tongo. Buphang-Waphang, Toksa-Tokmili, Chibuk-Sindrai, Mwsa-Maywng, Twima-Twisa, Lama-Kokma, Langma gwnang bebak malnai bai himnai. Twi bisingni manwi, Ha sakani manwi, kuchugo birnai, Ha bisingo tongnai, aswk kwbangma  mung sabaiwi paiya. Sabo pharka a mungrog? Belaino uanamasingcha! Bebak Dophani kok bai tongo juda juda mung. Tini mo chikonsa bwlai ni bisingtwi chwng silainai chini "Borok Dopha" ni kok bai "Kok Borok Mung"  Mung pharlaimani raida belaino kwcham tei tabukbo siyakho buphuru ni jora puila mung pharjakkha. Bebak Hukumu(cultures) ni mung tongo. Juda juda hukumu tei bororok juda juda mung pharlaio. Baksani belaino kwlai, baksani kutuk. Indonesia Hani kwbangma bororok ni mung thaisa(single) se pharlaio, aboni bagwi bohrokni mung pharlaimani kwlai hwnwi mano. Tei babaisa naharwi naikha hwnkhe chwng khanao sirisity(traditional) ni simi China(Chinese) bororok mung pharlaimani belaino kutuk(complex). China chwlarokni juda juda mung pharjago bohrok ni juda juda jora tei samungno rwgwi, bohrok ni nukhung (family line), bosong (clan) nobo rwgwi pharo.

Mung kwbangma samungo eba sinithani chugo tei chubao. Jotoni saih chuk-kuk mani hwnkhe chwngno khoroksa tei khoroksa bai khagwi sinirio.Uansugwi naidi, bwswkse kutuk wngkhamung khoroksa borokno sininani bagwi tumung chwng mung pharlaiya eba mung kwrwi hwnkhe. Khoroksa borokni mung Hachuk, Haping, Gairing amotwirok pharlaiyawi tumung borok-bara, khwnai-kokoro, sak-sompilik eba Twisa Hapolok nide hwnwi hwnjakkhamun. Baksa mung chini yaphangni kokno sirio, chini nok/nukhungni (family line) eba bosong (clan) ni kok nobo sirio. Abo kaisa bosong tei kaisa kwtal bosongno yapharmani haise. Borok Dophani Kok-Borok mung ni swkang chwng nailainaih 'Europe' tei juda dopha rogni mung pharlaimani.

                                                                   

                        EUROPE TEI JUDA DOPHA ROGNI MUNG PHARLAIMANI

 HEBREW: Chwng Hebrew kokbai mung pharjak mani nukkha, Adam,Eve,Jacob,Noah, Rebbeca, Leah,Sarah,John,Simon,Mathew tei Mary hwnwi kwbangma mung, tabuk bo amotwi mung Khristian rog tei Katholik Ha kotor o pharjagwi tongo.

GREEK: Greek kok bai chwng nugo, Peter,Luke,Stephen abohai rog pharlaimani.

 LATIN: Paul,Mark amotwirog mung nugo Latin kokbai.

GERMAN: German mung wngkha Charles,Louise,Henry,Frederick amotwirog.

 CELTIC: Kok kuphur(English) kok sanaih rogni mung wngkha, Dylan, Jennifer,Erin,Kenneth amotwirog.

SLAVIC: (Eastern tei Central Europe) Kusung kusungni mungno tabuk bo pharwi tongo, Radoslaw,Miroslav,Jaromir, bwrwi rogni hwnkhe Kazimiera,Miroslawa amotwirog.

 THURUK MUNG: Thuruk rogni mung pharjagkugo AROBIC kokbai, baksa Persian,Turkish kokbai pharlaio.Umar,Ali,Bakr,Fatima,Tariq,Amir amotwirog.

 IDONESIA:Indonesia ni bororok kubangkuk no 'Western' Ha o mung pharlaimani hai pharlaiya, puila sakbaithangni mung yagulo nukhung (family) ni mung. Nukhung (family) ni mung eba paithak mung bohrog ni kubang kwrwi. President 'Sukarno' (6th June 1901-21st June 1970), Idonesia Hani puila president ni mungbo thaisa se. Bini yakorai karwk president wngkha 'Suharto' bini bo hai no mung thaisase.

            Example 1 : Mung thaisa

            Bwsa ni mung: Gema

            Bwpha ni mung: Suparman

            Bwma ni mung: Wulandari

           Example 2 : Mung thainwi

            Bwsa ni mung : Gema Pertiwi

            Bwpha ni mung : Suparman Perkasa

            Bwma ni mung Wening Wulandari

            Mung thainwi pharthani nukhung ni mung khobjakya.  

            Example 3 : Mung kubang (Multiple) nukhung(family) mung no khobwi

            Bwsa ni mung : Gema Alatas.

            Bwpha ni mung : Suparman Alatas.

            Bwma ni mung : Wening Wulandari Asegaff

            Bwsa ni mung bwphani nukhung mung (Surname) no khobwi pharkha.

CHINESE: Chin Hani bororok puila paithak mung (surname) ulo pharjak mung no swi o.Chin Hani basketball thwngkrwng ni mung 'Yao Ming".Bini mung 'Ming' se 'Yao' ya. Yao bini paithak mung. Chin rog pharjak mung no karwi bo tei thaisa mung (Nicknames) pharlai o. Puila pharmani mungni swlai phano tei thaisa pharphimani mungbai sinijakukgo. 'Chen Shui-bian' a borok A-bian hwnwi sinijakukgo.  Chin dopharog jora no rwgwi bo mung pharlai o. Chobani jora, uatwi nokbarni jora, tongthokma jora, mai-khul manmani jora amotwirog no naikolmani bising mung pharlaikukgo. Bebak dopharog sakbaithangni kok(Ma ni kok) bai pharlaimani mungrog chwng nukkha.Bohrogrok mwkhang bai simi sinijakya, dophani kok bai pharjak mung bai binisakbaithangno tei dophano sinirikukgo.

 BOROK DOPHANI KOK BOROK MUNG

Kubun dophao sakbaithangni kok (Ma ni kok) bai mung tongtwi,mung pharjaktwi no Borok Dopharog bo sakni kokbai mung kusung kusung pharlaiwi phaio.Borok Dophani bororok sak baithangni mungni slaih bwsani mung bai sinijak kugo.Aboni bagwino tabuk joraobo Tokhirai Pha,Uakhirai Pha hinwi ringwi tonglaimani bo nukjago/khwnao.Tokhirai eba Tokhirai Pha, Uakhirai eba Uakhirai Pha,Pungkhirai eba Pungkhirai Pha mungrog khwnathokya, mwnwi kothok,lachisincha wngjagwi Borok Dophani kubangkuk bororok sakbaithangni kok(Ma ni kok) bai pharjak mungno swlai laiwi buini kokbai sakni mungno pharlai kha. Khamao swijak mung Borok Dopha ni bisingo pharjagwi tongo.Srai srai khlai chwng nugo a mungrog Kok Borok Mung ya.Phiya a mung bai no borom tei achukthai rwjagwi tongo. "PREMANANDA", "JAGATGURU" no borom rwnani hwnkhe mung ringwi(khuwi) se borom rwjago, bono romwi bwsago tangwi borom rwya. "PREMANANDA" mung tumung KOK BOROK mung wngya hwnkhe chwng sabono BOROM rwwi tong? PREM+ANANDA eba PREMANANDA uanjwi mung no KOK BOROK mungo philkhe(translate) wngo HAMJAKMA+TONGTHOK eba HAMJAKMATONGTHOK.Tabuk uansugwi naidi Punkhirai tei Hamjakmatongthok mung pharka hwnkhe boro Pherlai ???

 1) Premananda D.Barma

2) Sundori Koloi

3) Jagatguru Jamatia

4) Nayan bashi Molsom

5) Sadhan bhakta Jamatia

6)  Nanda hari Hrangkhwal

7) Pabitra laxmi Tripura

8) Chandra Mohan Reang

9) Sukuram Kaipeng

 Sakao swijak (pharjak) mungrog ni bising mung kaisa philwi phunuk jakkha.Philwi phunukjak mungno karwi tei suijak mung rogno Takhuk-Bukhukrog, norok KOK BOROK KOK bai philwi naisidi.Nini mung bo kubun dophani kokbai pharjak wng tongkhe sak baithang no philwi naidi.

             BUINI KOK BAI MUNG SWLAIMANI UKLOGO TAMO TAMO WNGWI MAN?

 01)          Sakbaithangni kok/Ma ni kok bai mung pharnani rwngya;

02)          Sakbaithangni kok bai mung pharmani khwnathok jakya, mwnwi kothok tei lachisincha wngjagwi;

03)          Sakno kwtal kokbai(modern) sini rwna muchungo;

04)          Sakno sakni borok bai kagwi tongnani muchungma bagwi;

05)          Sakni borokno hamjakya wngmani bagwi eba hamjakna rwngya;

06)          Sakno BOROK DOPHA ni hwnwi sirijakna/sinijakna muchungjakya wngmani;

07)          Buini dophano hamjagwi sakni Dophano selengma bagwi;

08)          Sakni dophani kok no khitarwi kubun dophani kokno yakchakma bagwi;

09)          Sakni dophano swklugwi kubun dophano kuchugo phunukna bagwi;

10)          Sakni dophano naislewi kubun dophano kiching-kaham hinwi uansukma

 Hayung gwnangwi bebak dopharok  sio 'TWIPRA HA BOROK DOPHANI HA' hwnwi. Laibuma tei 'BUBAGRA KHUMTRANG' o srai srai khlai nugo Borok Dophani bororok kusung kusug Twipra Ha o bahai laiwi phaika(tongwi phaika). Sakni kok, sakni kanmung, sakni chamung, nungmung, tongmung, sakni kokbai pharjak bebak thai tei bororokni mung bai kupulung.Naharwi naidi chini Laibuma rokno, naiwi naidi tinini chini Borok Ha bai bororokno. Chwng bebakno kuma mani bwkhak .Kumawi tongkha chini sakni kok bai "KOK BOROK MUNG". Abo sabo kuma rw, tamni bagwi? Bohrogni naimung, naharmung tamo ? BELAINO UANAMA SINCHA ! A Borok (bororok) sabo ? Bini (bohrog ni) naharmwng tamo ? A kok chwng sabono swngnai, chwngno sabo sanai ?

 Chwng buino swngyawi sakni sakno kisa jora naharwi, cherwi, naiwi naikha hwnkhe no mannai/ Sinai. A borok keboya, a borok chini logeni borok se. Bo bebak jora tei bebak thai o no chini loge tongo. Kaham jora, tongthokma jora a borok no karwi mungsa khlaiwi manya wngwi tongkha chwng.

KHAJANI TAKHUK TEI BUKHUKROG, ABOROK WNGKHA CHINI "MUNG".

 Sakni mokol bai nahar-yawi buini mokol bai naharkha hwnkhe chwng bahai khlai sinai(nuknai) bini naharmung tamo? Takhuk tei Bukhukrog uansugwi naidi kaham khlaiwi. Chini sakbaithangni swkang chini "MUNG"  se khujago/thango. Aboni yagulo se 'borom' tei 'achukthai'…….tabuk uansukthai, swngthai hwnkhe a 'borom' mannai, 'achukthai' mannai borok sabo puila? Chini sakni "MUNG" ya de ba?  Hwnkhe chwng tabuk sakbaithangno swngwi mano chini sakni mung saboni kok bai ? Tumung kubun dophani kok bai (sakbaithang ni mung) hwnkhe chwng sabono borom ririwi tong? Sabono achukthai ririwi tong ?  Chwng kebono swngnani nangya, chwng chini sakbaithangno cherwi naikha hwnkhe no sio. Chwng no kebo saphainani bo nangya abo chwng sakno lachirwmani se kwlai o.

 Tabuk chwng sawi mano, buini kok bai mung pharkai bini naharmung, uanswkmung srai srai khlai nukjago, a borok wngkha:

01)                Sakni no selengwi buini no hamjaknai;

02)                Sakbaithang kwrwng (educated) phano sakni kokbai(Kok Borok) mung pharnani rwngya;

03)                Kwtal kok(buini kok) bai sak ni kok no kwmarinani nainaih;

04)                Sakni Dopha o khakchangma manya buini dopha o khakchangma rutuknai borok;

05)                Sakni khikurwk ni khi nukya Dophani khikurwkgo khi nugwi lachinai ;

06)                Sakni Dophano kakhulugwi saka o kanani nainaih tei buini dophano khairokgwi rujunani  chaitoknai;

07)                Sakni Dophano phikwngo buini dophano khakalap bo chobnai;

08)                Mani abuktwi no chawi torwi buini abuktwi no kothok wngna hwnwi kha kanai;

09)                Sakni kok no  phalwi buini kokbai oksupungnai;

10)                Sakno swkang tlangwi manya buibai twiduljaknai.

 Agi o Tokhirai, Pungkhirai, Tokhiti, Wakhiti, amotwirog pharlaiwi phaika. Yagulo Haping, Gairing, Laisa, Bukhurwi  amotwirog pharlaikha, a mung rog bwswkse khanathok. Haiphano Borok Dophani kwbangma bororok sakni kokbai mung pharyawi buini kok bai pharlaiwi tongo abo belaino "LACHISINCHA" ! Kothoma o sajakma hai, Muswk no Korai khlainani bagwi buthani thwijaktwi chwng bo sak ni kok bai mung pharnani rwngya, lachisincha wngjagmani bagwi chini kok no tei chini sakno swkumawi tongkha. Tokha sakno hwinani bagwi 'Boga' bwlwngo hwijakgwi buini mokolo dakti no sinijaktwi chini bororok bo buini kok bai sak ni mung no pharphano bo Borok Dophani ni borok no togwi tongo eba kubun dophani wngwi thangya. 'Tokha', 'Boga' wngnani chaitok phano 'Bogale' 'Tokha' no chini 'Boga' hwnwide chongno (yachakno) ? Twi kran o A kwrwi eba Twi kwrwi hwnkhe A bo kwrwi. Amotwi wngwi tongkha chwng. Buini mung bai mung pharya hwnkhe chini mung khanathokya. Buini mung bai mung pharya hwnkhe 'borom' tei 'achukthai' kwrwi hai wngjago chwng. Buibai tuidulkjakya hwnkhe lam koronani kiri o chwng.

Salni pohor baise Tal piro. Sal ni pohor Tal o klaiya hwnkhe chwng Tal no nukya. AMOTWIDE CHWNG? Buini mung bai se chwng Tal hai pirmani klaisio. Buini mung bwskango tei chini uklogo. Chwng sakno sini rio lekha kwrwng (educated) Dophano tuidulnai (leader) tei Dopha Hamkrai nainaih hwnwi. Lekha kwrwngrog. Dophano tuidulnairog, tei Dopha Hamkrai nainaihrog, sakbaithang ni pohor baide Dopha no kwrwng khlainai? Dopha no tuidulnai? Dophani Hamkrai nainaih ? Swkang sakno cherwi naidi. Paithago bebak Borok Dophani bororok n ???

 TAKHUK TEI BUKHUKROG PHAIDI CHWNG UANSWKLAISINAI, SAKNI POHOR BAI HIMLAISINAI, CHINI KOK CHWNG SALAI SINAI, KOK "BOROK MUNG" PHARLAISINAI.

Kobokmung/Koimung:

Takhuk/Bukhukrog,

                               Hambai "BOROK MUNG" bwlaino jora naharwi cherwi naimani bagwi. Bebak nono koihoro mo bwlaino sakbaithang naimatwi tei khoroksa ganani borok nobo phunukjadi. "BOROK MUNG" tei "ROROK DOPHA" aywk lokthwng.

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Science and Religion.

Elvia Jamatia

 There can be hardly any compromise between science and religion. Science deals with the material world that we know; religion is concerned with the divine order that we imagine. Science belief in the things that can be proved; religion deals with ideas that can not be proved. Science depends on reason religion on intuition. The scientist bases himself on the material facts; religion takes its stand on spiritual ideas. The scientist works in the laboratory of the material world, the religious teacher probes into the recesses of the inward mind. The goal of the science is achievement; that of religion is realization. The truth of the science can be proved to all; the 'so-called' truth of the have to be taken on trust. Hence there is bound to be hostility between the man of science and the man of religion.

Whether God exists is a proposition that is beyond proof. Writing in an age when science was already beginning to havoc with the traditional ideas, Tennyson plaintively said to God-

"Whom we that can not see Thy faces,

By faith and faith and faith alone embrace

Believing where we cannot prove."

And again-

"We have but faith, we can not know,

For knowledge is the thing we see;

And yet we trust it comes from Thee

A beam in darkness." 

 Beyond the known world of life that is before us, there is the illimitable unknown world beyond death which we neither know nor can know, and yet which looms before us as some thing so portentous that we can not ignore. Religion there ore is the refuge of man where science has failed to solve his doubts. And as long as this limitation on our powers of knowing will remain, there is bound to be a place of religion in human life.

While the truth of the science can be demonstrated to all, those of religion have never been so, except to the barest few, whose word must be accepted with out question. The result of this is that the rational man continues to doubt the evidence offered by a few esoteric minds against the overwhelming evidence of material facts. But these are deeper questions with which the average man is not at all concerned. He feels the need of the science in the sphere of his material existence; he utilizes the knowledge which science has placed at his disposal for solving the material problems of existence. He can not do so with out science. But there is the other element is his life which is no less a fact. He does not know whence he has come or whither he will go; the mystery of life and death baffles him and frightens him; "the heavy and weary weight of this entire unintelligible world" is for him a perpetual torment. In this mood he fails back upon the idea of God, upon the solace of religion. That is why even the scientist feels the need of religion.

Further, though there is a fundamental opposition between the science and religion, religion will be sought by men as long as these remain a feeling of the helpless ness before the uncertainty of an incalculable future. In his adversity, in his agony, man feels the need of turning to something for some sort of help and solace. Hence science and religion will maintain parallel concern which however will never converge.  That has been the case since man sought the ways of gaining objective knowledge. The only respect in which man has advanced or changed is this- the modern man does not persecute of science as his ancestors did in the past, although he man not like his materialistic gospel of life.

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Education: Freedom of Mind and It's Acceptance

Dr. Biplab Jamatia

 The journey of education began on this earth with the journey of mankind. Though the methodology and implementation of education has been different in different periods, the purpose has remained the same. Education has always signified learning; freedom of mind and its purpose has been to make itself useful for the development of civilization. We have been undertaking this journey of education and have managed to reach the present times.

 The journey of formal education for the Tripuris attained visibility around the 1960s. Its main aim then was to create a body of literate people who could serve the administration. However, with the changes in the socio-political-economical environment of Tripura, the native Tripuri faced shortage of means for survival. By the 1970s, the biggest solution available to a Tripuri for his survival was to take shelter in education so that it could help him/her earn a degree and settle down for a good job with however small but regular income. This brought about a change in the demographic milieu of Tripura with a divide being formed between the agrarian class and the newly formed Government official class. The distance between the two grew with the migration of these educated officials to Agartala and other towns where their offices were situated.

 After migrating to the town where these groups of Tripuries came in contact with the other communities who were already living in the towns at that time, they started detaching themselves from their roots. Among this class, few of them disappointed their preceding generations by rejecting their traditions, dress and language which may have been due to inferiority complex or a desire to prove themselves as superior to the rest of Tripuris or as a means of getting recognition from the other communities or due to the combination of the three reasons. But the majority still managed to retain and safeguard a portion of its culture.  

It is this class that can help with the task of giving an impetus to education in the state. All of us who have the advantage of having educated parents who can provide us with means for further growth represent this generation. Our generation not only has larger scope for education but it also has a faster rate of expansion of freedom of mind than our parent generation. This expansion has been caused by the rapid development in the world in the past few decades. Globalization has made the world a smaller place where the youth of Tripura has come in contact with the rest of the world, which has considerably broadened its horizon. The unequal rate of expansion of thoughts has generated a gap between the two generations where the values that define each generation has become different. Our parent generation values its treasure of traditions and believes in the value system of a unified society. It is because the kind of exposure we have received and the perception of the relation between individual and society that we have is different from that of our parents.

Our present generation too has similar convictions but in a different dimension. Together with upholding their culture, this present generation finds it necessary to incorporate components from other cultures too. Hence, while the Tripuri youth is comfortable wearing a Rignai at home and at functions and gatherings, we also find them equally comfortable in salwaar-kameez and western outfits wherever the situation demands. Even our parents have no problem with regard to this as long as it is a requirement for our growth and prosperity because the main concern of any parent is the proper development of the child. In addition, they also give us the freedom to choose our own careers, a choice that was not available to them when they were students. In return, they have some expectations from their children and what creates a problem is that sometimes their expectation is at odds with the decisions of the youngsters.

If we look at it from the perspective of our parents, then this oddity arises because they care about our happiness. They are afraid of taking risks in matters related to their children; they want them to follow the tried and tested formula of gaining security in life. For instance, ten years ago, most parents wanted their children to become either a doctor or an engineer because their knowledge about other options was limited. Nowadays parents have become more accommodating towards other career options that their children place before them because they are more aware of it through the mass media, newspapers etc. Here we notice that while earlier it was the parents who decided the lifeline of the child, in today's world, parents give enough freedom to the children to choose their own meaning of life. Situations like career, nature and place of job and selection of life partner are the important decision where we find disagreement between two generations.  

In moments of disagreement parents regret why they gave so much education to their children. They also feel embarrassed facing a society, which is not supportive. They also find all their effort useless, which they carried out to educate their children. On the other hand, the children have a feeling that they are mature enough and they can take decisions for themselves. They feel that compromise is the cost they are going to pay their parent for their parenthood. Now, the question arises that who is going to sacrifice. Is it the parent or their children or both together? Parent says that they are mature enough and they always want good for their children. They say that nobody has done things like this before and so why should their children. Their thought are inclined towards social issues and traditional values whereas the youngsters are more concerned about their individual rights.  The children feel that their parents have already lived their life the way they want and the present and future is their own to decide. In the condition where parents are resigning or compromising then they feel that it is their mistake that they have given a lot of education to their children. If youngsters have to compromise then they feel that they are paying back their parents. Sometime youngsters suffer because they do not accept the suggestion from his/her parents. It is also true that sometime the tough decision of the parents ruin the life of their children. As a result the child feels frustrated all through his life because of not being able to carry out the things in his/her own way.  Whatever the reason and who so ever does the compromise the main out come is that it gives lot of pain to lot of people.  All these pain compels the party who has suffered to withdraw from that person who has caused the suffering.

Now the question is how can we prevent all these unwanted pain in our life or around us. This is very true that each one of us is unique in our thought and attitude towards life depending upon our past experiences and situations of life. The main issues in this matter are about the traditional thought, social values, tested experiences, individual rights, tendency to explore the possibilities and courage to take risk. If we decrease the communication gap between the two generations then they can understand each other better. Where they can set priorities by consulting the other, they can explore the possibilities and then they will be ready to take the risk. Decreasing this gap is not a one-day process rather a long-term commitment in each of our lives. If the investment is carried out by both parties in a continuous way then we can build a bridge between the gap of two generations where all issues like traditional thought, social values, tested experiences, individual rights, tendency to explore the possibilities and courage to take risk can be brought to the same level. In that condition though the pain may not be eliminated completely it can definitely be minimized. Only then can we enjoy the common goals of love, happiness, satisfaction and prosperity in life.

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Live or Dead !!!

 Dr. Biplab Jamatia

You Know, the Sea of Galilee is a freshwater lake 150 feet deep and 700 feet below sea level. Technically it is a lake, but the Hebrew yam can mean either a freshwater lake or a proper sea. Surrounding cities include Bethsaida, Capernaum, Tiberias, and Hippos. The Hebrew name is Kinneret, from the Hebrew word for harp (kinnor), a reference its harp shape. The Sea of Galilee has been known under a number of different names, including: Sea of Chinnereth Lake of Gennesaret; Lake of Tarichaeae; Sea of Tiberias  The Sea of Galilee is located in the region of Galilee of northern Israel and is part of the Syro-African rift, a major geological fault line that runs from Turkey in the north to Africa in the south. The Sea of Galilee is fed by the Jordan River in the north, which then continues out in the south. It 15 miles long, 8 miles across at its widest, and serves as a natural boundary between the Jewish Galilee to the west and Gentile areas (such as the Decaoplis) to the east.

The region around the Sea of Galilee is characterized by abundant water and rich soil, making it a good location for agriculture. Fishing has always been a major industry. Human habitation dates back for millennia and it may have been an early settlement point for hominids migrating out of Africa. Despite the Jewish character of those to the west and Gentile character of those to the east, archaeological evidence indicates a great deal of continuity of lifestyles for all those living on the shores, regardless of religion.

The Sea of Galilee features prominently in the gospel stories about Jesus. According to the gospel authors, much of Jesus' ministry took place in towns and villages around Galilee - especially Capernaum and Bethsaida. Because of the high surrounding hills, violent thunderstorms can suddenly strike, something recorded in the gospel stories. The pattern of high hills and narrow shorelines is broken at the northwest corner where the fertile plain of Gennesar meets the lake.

But there is one more lake known as the Dead Sea. It's called the Dead Sea because nothing lives in it. It is some of the saltiest water anywhere in the world, almost six times as salty as the ocean! The Dead Sea is completely landlocked and it gets saltier with increasing depth. The surface, fed by the River Jordan, is the least saline. Down to about 130 feet (40 meters), the seawater comprises about 300 grams of salt per kilogram of seawater. That's about ten times the salinity of the oceans. Below 300 feet, though, the sea has 332 grams of salt per kilogram of seawater and is saturated. Salt precipitates out and piles up on the bottom of the sea.

There's no seaweed or plants of any kind in or around the water. There are no fish or any kind of swimming, squirming creatures living in or near the water. As a matter of fact, what you'll see on the shores of the Sea is white, crystals of salt covering EVERYTHING. And this is no ordinary table salt, either. The salts found in the Dead Sea are mineral salts, just like you find in the oceans of the world, only in extreme concentrations. The water in the Dead Sea is deadly to living things. Fish accidentally swimming into the waters from one of the several freshwater streams that feed the Sea are killed instantly, their bodies quickly coated with a preserving layer of salt crystals and then tossed onto shore by the wind and waves. Brutal!

Do you know why there is so much difference between Sea of Galilee and Dead Sea? I think, it is because Sea of Galilee fed by the Jordan River in the north, which then continues out in the south. Where Dead Sea only receive the water from the same river. And there is no output from this lake. Even in our life also may be turn the same like these two lakes. If we want life then we should maintain the input and output ratio. But if we are only receiving and not outputting from our side then perhaps we may become just like this lake so called Dead Sea. In our day-to-day life, we received many things from this world. It may be love, caring, emotional support, help, encouragement, inspiration and so on. If we just receive things from outer world then gradually the amount will reduce. And one day it will totally finished. But if we start giving some things to others then the desire to give will keep increasing and it will compel you to get more and more. The same things we can also reflect to our society. Then only we may live our life and all of us can progress for better tomorrow. I am thinking, all this because sometime or other I feel that I am also just like the Dead Sea. Till today I have received so many things from my near and dear one. But what could I do for them? What could I do for those who give me innocent healing touch in my life? Simple answer is nothing. This may be main concept of life or concept of this world, which make me a lively dead man just like a Dead Sea. My heart is crying to live the life. But you know, the mind is so selfish and it knows that for that he has to sacrifices some things in his life. And it is the mind that compels to become just like a dead man.

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Secret of True Education and Development of a Race

 Mr. P. M. Tripura.

 Since my childhood, when Almighty God had gifted me with realizing sense of thought, we have been demanding autonomous district council and demand for education in Kokborok, in our mother tongue, for development of Tripuri borok people. Today we got autonomous district council, Kokborok language had been recognized, and introduced in school as medium of education, but are we really progressing? Are we actually advancing towards development? Are we actually advancing towards developing Nation? Are we able to sustain in this speed of competitive wheels of development? Today, we need to review again and again, and set right our mistakes in the right direction of advancement of developing wheels. For this, I request all of my brothers and sisters, young people, bureaucrats, politicians, educationist, teachers, every individual who loves Tripuri people to unite, to review situation and share their views and guide our borok people in the right path.

In this juncture, we need the "true education" which can guide our new generation in the right direction and perspective. Education is the manifestation of the perfection already in man. We need that education by which our character is formed, strength of mind is increased, the intellect is expanded and by which one can stand on one's own feet. "We must bright light to the poor and bring more light to the rich, for they require it more than the poor. Bring light to the ignorant, and more light to the educated, for the vanities of the education of our time are tremendous".

Education is not the amount of information that is put into your brain and runs riot there, undigested, all your life. We must have life building, man making, and character making assimilations of ideas. If you have assimilated five ideas and made them part of your life and character, you have more education than any man who has got by heart a whole LIBRARY.  

To me the very essence of education is concentration of mind, not collecting of facts. Concentration is the essence of all knowledge; nothing can be done without it. Ninety percent of thought force is worked by ordinary human being, and therefore he is constantly committing blunders, the trained man or mind never makes a mistake.  This is the difference between man and animals- man has a greater power of concentration. The difference in their power of concentration constitutes the difference between man and man, between lowest and highest man. 

Well, you consider a man as educated if only he can pass some examination and deliver good lectures. The education which does not help the common mass of people to equip themselves for the struggle for life, which does not bring out strength of character, a spirit of philanthropy and the courage; of a lion- is it the worth of name ?  

Real education is that which enables one to stand on one's own feet. Such type of real education will changes our new generation to think & develop our Tripuri nation.  The education that we are receiving now in schools and colleges is only making us a race of dyspeptics, we are working like a machine and living like a jelly fish. What we need are western science, coupled with our culture, our heritage, love and respect among us, as guiding motto and also faith in one's own self.

If we speak kind words to our boys and girls and encourage them, they are bound to improve in time. If we can give them positive ideas, people will grow up to be men and learn to stand on their own legs. In language and literature, in poetry and the arts, in every thing we must not point out the mistakes that the people are making in their thoughts and actions, but in the way in which they will gradually be able to do these things better. This is the way of developing a race, a caste or a  nation. Pointing out a mistakes wounds a man's feeling. We must give words of hopes and encouragement even to the most degraded persons and lifted them up, and then only we can think that we have started in the right way of progressing towards a developing nation.

 How have all the knowledge in the world been gained but by the concentration of the powers of our mind? The world is ready to give up its secrets if we only know how to knock, how to give it the necessary blow, how to heal the poor. The strength and force of the blow come through concentration. There is no limit of power of human mind. The more concentrated it is, the more power is brought to bear on one point, that is the secret of education.

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In The Realms of Memoirs

Dr. Birata Debbarma.

 It seems that today I am suffering from a fit of depression. Perhaps, this is because I have a slight cold with fever and this is making me feel vaguely unwell. I sat on a neglected broken chair at the verandah. I can see the crimson sun setting behind the deep wide horizon slowly and sadly, it seems. And my eyes wander towards the grey and red wall of the campus, the motionless trees and green bushes, then towards the slaty and grey sky overhead and a tall, robust building that stands like an astrayed elephant by the side of the road. Altogether, they make me more drab and depressing.

I seem to unable to take pleasure in what's really quite an agreeable view of crimson sunset, trees and bushes and the sky overhead. I shall see it in a different light when my health is better. I took a deep breath and stretch my arms wide open and let the evening breeze to kiss over my body. I can feel the hotness of my breath that has gone with the evening breeze.

I can see two children playing, laughing, chasing one after another and dragging towards each other beneath that tall robust building. Seeing them, I too sunk into the morass of my childhood memoirs which are still encased in the cockpit of my heart. I remember those happy and innocent past days when I was like them- playing, laughing and flying kites at the lap of green fields. I remember how much I was afraid losing the way while playing hide and seek in the jungle. I remember how I quarreled with my friend at their courtyard while playing cricket.

 Still fresh in my memory that once my elder sister had stolen chocolates from my school bag which I bought while returning from the school. I was suspecting my elder brother for that mischievous act. When the truth came into light that she had shared those chocolates with her best friend, Bela; I had broken her lipstick and a newly bought pen and thrown her school bag away in anger and kept on asking stubbornly either to regurgitate those ingested chocolates or to purchase immediately the same by hook and crook.

She cried and complaint Dad about my noble deeds as he returned from the bazaar. He instantly shouted at me and within a blink, I ran away to my grandma's cottage. He couldn't find me as I was hiding under the cot. Grandma had a few words to me about the matter and forbidden me not to repeat the same in the coming days ahead. I was paying heed quietly and as she pauses, promptly I promised to her that I wouldn't quarrel with elders anymore. I spent the particular night with her.

She also had a few words of advice to me to be attentive in studies so that I can become a Doctor and can treat her uncured and prolonged backache problem. It was her fervent wish. I still remember when I was in class five; that my Dad bought a new bicycle. As he knew how much I was crazy about bicycle in disproportion to my age, he would hide the key beneath the pillow while taking siesta. Many and many a times I tried to get it but I had been in vain for the first two days.

On the third day afternoon, I also lied down closing my eyes pretending to be in sound siesta and shared the same pillow with him. I cuddled him with one hand and kept the other under the pillow and waited eagerly till he snores. I pushed my hand softly and slowly to reach the key and took it away without his knowledge. Momentarily, I was at the top of the world. I was not able to reach the saddle, even though I was riding with great difficulty and lose control to hit a stump by the side of the road. When I tried to get up, I saw a slit of lacerated wound on the front of my right thigh from which a few drops of blood were oozing. For that, I had to limp at every step for a couple of days. Still the scar do persists.

Recently, I heard that Kakku (colloquially uncle) was no more in this world. He lost his innocuous life in a fake encounter while grazing in the same nearby jungle where we used to play hide and seek in the earlier days. He was one of the best friends of my childhood. He too used to address me as Kakku. He has got a woman's face with womanish -expression yet has a big heart. When I met him for the first time; I felt something awkward inside me although he was so friendly to me.

Later on, I came to know that he certainly was born perinataly in that way and gradually became my best buddy. He was well versed in telling all kinds of short stories, Folk-tales and Jokes and would make us laugh. He often used to narrate the bravery tales of princes and their romantic saga of the princely state Tripura. These might be the reasons why he was the most sought fellow and popular among our peer group.

His untimely departure makes my childhood memoirs further deeper and stronger. I know those are the days that will never come back. But those unforgettable and unfathomable little happenings of childhood will haunt me till the last breath of my life.Those are the beautiful moments that will become ultimate bosom friend when my black hairs turns into grey and when I could smell the sweet sickly smell of my dying body. It will console me when I am alone and will never make me feel lonely-

Like a walking stick of old age, it will accompany me till the last day of my Destiny.

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