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HISTORY

   MERGER AGREEMENT   

ORIGIN OF HINDU RELIGION

    

 The history of Tripura is very old. It dates back to the era of the Mahabharata. The name of the Tripura was mentioned in the the above epic along with the states like Manipur, Kamrup (Assam) etc. no doubt it was none other than present Tripura, though its location has changed from its past. Tripura's name is also mentioned in the list of states that was mentioned in the Ashoka's pillar that is now reserved in Saranath. Hiuen Tsang also mentioned in his travelogue about the presence of great Boro/Borok kingdom in the east of Bengal.  The 'Tripura' is a small kingdom, unattached with British of India. It was an independent country till the merger with union of India in 1949 A.D. There are different opinion and explanation about the origin of word Tripura among scholars and historian.

Origin of Tripura :
Earlier the name of Tripura was  Kiratbhumi, it's capital was in Tribeg. It means land of Kirat, the Tripuris used to be called previously. Some where three thousand years back its name was changed to Tripura, the reason for such is not yet settled beyond controversy.

1) In One school of thought, the word 'Tripura' originated from the king Tripur who happens to rule the state. According to the legend Tripur was the 39th descendent of Druhya, who was descendent of Yayati, one of the lunar race kings. He was so mighty that he ordered his subjects not to worship any god other than him, had no faith in god. He started torturing the subjects who defies his order. People fled in a body escape from his tyranny to near by state of Hiramba (Cachar).

 There are also other plenty of example in Tripura where different kings of Tripura named the city, towns, capitals etc according to their name. For example Udaipur, Amarpur, Kalyanpur, Dharmanagar in Tripura, Ratanpur, Bijay Nagar etc in Present Bangladesh. there are also examples of naming different lakes, Ponds, River etc in their mane, for example Dharma Sagar, Govinda Sagar, Kalyan Sagar, Bijay river etc. Even the name of many Tripuri villages, area etc are named after the head or chieftain of the village like Chintaram Sarder Para,  Ramkumar Kwpra para etc. From this facts it was all probable that the mightiest king of Tripuri people Tripur might had changed the name of the state after his name.

There are ample of examples of many states named after the rulers name, Bharata from Bharat, Bangla from Banga, Gandhar etc in the history. Apart from this many countries of the world were also named after the king or individual discoverer like, Egypt, Libya, Jordan, America, Columbia etc. So there is every reason to prove that King Tripur also named his state after his name.

2)  According to another belief Tripura is a corrupt form of Twi-pra. The meaning of Twi is water and that of pra is confluence not the near. Like lampra is meeting point of two roads, bupra is bifurcation point of tree branch. As such the Tripuri call their state as Tipra not as Tripura which has been corrupted in Sanskrit and its derivative sister languages to Tripura. This is the most accepted opinion among Tripuris. In fact what is more to be noted is that most of the villages, places in Tripura are named after various rivers, tributaries etc. like Twikormo, Twirisa, Twisarangchak, Twimudul and so forth.

3)  In another theory, it is said that there was a totem in in Tripuri mythology called Tipra, a Tortoise, which is a sort of god for Tripuri people. According to Tripuri belief whenever this tipra tortoise makes it burrow near any Tripuri home or 'jhum' (huk) a traditional agricultural hillock the family is bound to have a bad luck or omen in that year. The burrow is called Tiprakhor, burrow of Tipra Tortoise. Such tortoise is prohibited from human consumption. The Tipra tortoise is offered sacrifices so that he does not shower any bad effect to that family, like offering to the god. Whenever such Tiprakhor arise any where near any Tripuri family's habitation, the family has to worship & satisfy that Tipra tortoise to avoid the any bad effect of that god. The origin of this Tipra word is Twi (water) + Bupra (shake of)=Tipra. According to this theory it is said that the Tipra (Tripura) name of our state derived from this Tipra tortoise, the totem of Tripuri people.

4)  In one more theory, Tripura name derived from three district with which it was formed previously, namely, Chattagram, Kumilla, Noakhali. these districts were earlier parts of Tripura, (Tri=Three, Pura=city)

5)  According to another school of thought, the name Tripura was probably given to the state in honor of the temple at Udaipur, Tripureshwari , the wife of lord Shiva. But this may not be correct as the temple was built in around 1501 A.D. by king Dhanya Manikya during the period of his reign between A.D. 1490-1515, where as the name of the state was in existence long before 1501. Instead it looks more probable that the deity took the name of the state rather than the state named after the deity.
 

6)  According to Kailash Chandra Singha, a prominent historian, the word Tripura is a derivative from two different Kokborok word 'twi-pra'. Twi means water, pra means near in the Tripuri language of the inhabitant of Tripura. It is likely that the state bears the name Tripura from this fact that in ancient time the boundaries of Tripura extended up to the Bay of Bengal when its ruler held sway from Garo hill to Arakan.
 

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The Chronicle of Tripura kings are given below as per the Rajmala :

 

1
Chandra
94
Sagar Fa
2
Budh
95
Maloy Chandra
3
Pururoba
96
Surjyarai(Surjya narayan)
4
Ayu
97
Achong Fanai(Indra Keerti or Uttang fani)
5
Nahush
98
Beer Singha(Charachar)
6
Yayati
99
Hachung fa(Achang fa or Surendra)
7
Druhya
100
Bimar
8
Babhru
101
Kumar
9
Setu
102
Sukumar
10
Anarta
103
Twisarao(Beerchandra or Takhsharao)
11
Gandhar
104
Rajyeshwar (Rajeshwar)
12
Dharmma(Gharma)
105
Nageshwar(Misliraj or Krodheshwar)
13
Dhrita(Ghrita)
106
Twisong fa(Tejong fa)
14
Durmad
107
Narendra
15
Pracheta
108
Indrakeerti
16
Parachi(Shata Dharma)
109
Biman(Paimaraj)
17
Parabasu
110
Yashoraj
18
Parishad
111
Banga(Nabanga)
19
Arijit
112
Gangarai (Rajganga)
20
Sujit
113
Sukurai(Chitasen or Chhakru rai)
21
Pururaba-II
114
Pratit
22
Bibarn
115
Misli(Marichi or Malsi or Marusom)
23
Puru Sen
116
Gagan (Kathuk)
24
Megh Barna
117
Keerti(Naoraj or Nabrai)
25
Bikarna
118
Jujaru fa (Hamtorfa or Himti)
26
Basuman
119
Jangi fa(Rajendra or Janak fa)
27
Keerti
120
Partha(Debrai or Debraj)
28
Kaniyan
121
Sebrai
29
Pratishraba
122
Dungur fa(Dankuru fa or Harirai, Kirit, Adidharma fa)
30
Pratishtho
123
Kharung fa(Kurung fa, Ramchandra)
31
Shakrajit(Shatrujit)
124
Sengfanai(Nrisingha, Singhafani)
32
Pratirddan
125
Lalit Rai
33
Pramath
126
Mukunda fa(Kunda fa)
34
Kalinda
127
Kamal Rai
35
Kromo(Krath)
128
Krishnadas
36
Mitrari
129
Jash fa(Jashoraj)
37
Baribarha
130
Muchung fa(Udwab)
38
Karmuk
131
Sadhu Rai
39
Kalang(Kalinga)
132
Pratap Rai
40
Bhishan
133
Vishnuprasad
41
Bhanumitra
134
Baneshwar (Baneeshwar)
42
Chitrasen(Agha Chitrasen)
135
Beerbahu
43
Chitrarath
136
Samrat
44
Chitrayudh
137
Champakeshwar(Champa)
45
Daitya
138
Meghraj(Megh)
46
Tripur
139
Sengkwchag (Dharmadhar)
47
Subrai (Trilochan)
140
Sengthum fa(Kirtidhar, Singhatung fa)
48
Dakhsin
141
Achong fa(Rajsurjya, Kunjaham fa)
49
Twidakshin
142
Khichung fa(Mohan)
50
Sudakshin
143
Dangar fa(Harirai)
51
Tardakshin
144
Raja fa
52
Dharmataru (Dharmatar)
145
Ratna fa(Ratna Manikya)
53
Dharmapal
146
Pratap Manikya
54
Sadharma (Sudharma)
147
Mukut Manikya (Mukunda)
55
Tarbong
148
Mahamanikya
56
Debang
149
Dharma Manikya -I
57
Narangita
150
Pratap Manikya
58
Dharmangad
151
Dhanya Manikya
59
Rukmangad
152
Dhwaj Manikya
60
Somangad (Sonangad)
153
Debmanikya
61
Nojugrai (Nogjog)
154
Indra Manikya-I
62
Torjung
155
Vijay Manikya-I
63
Tor Raj(Rajdharma)
156
Ananta Manikya
64
Hamraj
157
Udai Manikya
65
Birraj
158
Jai Manikya(Loktor fa)
66
Shriraj
159
Amar Manikya
67
Shriman (Shrimanta)
160
Rajdhar Manikya
68
Lakshmitaru
161
Jashodhar Manikya
69
Tarlakshmi(Roopban)
162
Kalyan Manikya
70
Mailkshmi(Lakshmiban)
163
Gobinda Manikya
71
Nageshwar
164
Chhatra Manikya(Nakhshtra Rai)
72
Jogeshwar
165
Ramdev Manikya
73
Ishwar fa(Neeldhwaj)
166
Ratna Manikya-II
74
Rangkhai (Basuraj)
167
Narendra Manikya
75
Dhanraj fa
168
Mahendra Manikya
76
Muchung fa (Harihar)
169
Dharma Manikya-II
77
Maichung fa(Chandrashekhar)
170
Mukunda Manikya
78
Chandraraj(Tabhuraj or Taruraj)
171
Jai Manikya
79
Tarfanai(Tripali)
172
Indra Manikya-II
80
Sumanta
173
Vijy Manikya-II
81
Roopabanta(Shretha)
174
Krishna Manikya
82
Tarham(Tarhom)
175
Rajdhar Manikya
83
Kha Ham(Hariraj)
176
Ramgana Manikya
84
Katar fa (Kashiraj)
177
Durga Manikya
85
Kalator fa (Madhab)
178
Kashi Chandra Manikya
86
Chandra fa (Chandraraj)
179
Krishna Kishore Manikya
87
Gajeshwar
180
Ishan Chandra manikya
88
Beer Raj-II
181
Bir Chandra Manikya
89
Nageshwar (Nagpati)
182
Radha Kishore Manikya
90
Sikhiraj (Siksharaj)
183
Birendra Kishore Manikya
91
Debraj
184
Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya
92
Dhusrang (Durasha or Dhara Ishwar)
185
Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya*
93
Barkeerti (Bir raj or Biraj)
186 Pradyot Bikram Manikya**

 

 


  Ujjayanta Prasad     Palace of Tripuri King

 


Neer Mahal 
  Water Palace

 


BirBikramManikya   The Last King of Tripura

 


Birendra Kishore
 

 


Radha Kishore

 


Birchandra Manikya
 

 


Ishan Chandra
 

 


Krishna Kishore
 

 


Durga Manikya

 

 


Ramganga Manikya
 

 


Darbar of Birbikram

 

 


Darbar of Birendra

 

 


Darbar of Radha

 

 


Palace in Night

 

 


Birbikram-Tagore

 

 


Radha-Tagore

 

 


Radha with Sandys

 

 


Darbar Birbikram

 


A View of Palace

 

                              * This King was Minor when his father died. So On his behalf  his Mother Kanchan Prabha Devi
                                 ruled as Regent of Tripura till its Merger with India. He died on 27th Nov 2006.

                               ** He  had been Coroneted as King Of Tripura Symbolically after death of his father.

                            

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