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Khorang Magazine 2005

Article

Poetry

Hamari ni Mutai  Baba Goria

Culture of Tribals of Tripura Khatangw

Ani College ni Salrok

The Tripuri  Identity Jora
An Invitation to Change Borok
  Crisis in The Making Nwngbo
  Communication Gap Maidul
  Suicide Sabo Ang

Hamari ni Mutai  Baba Goria

Mr. Modhusudon Debbarma

Sak kwcham sakno uklok kkhibiui

Sakmang sak khung chwlaiwi,

Bisile faifiro kwtal khai kifilwi,

Yapiri yakamsa bwskango sewi,

Wansuk mung kwtal tubuwi.

Bisi kwtal ni sam kwtal twi o

Babagoria faifiro kifilwi,

Wansuk kwtal logi tubuwi

Bisino rifaio chengwi,

Hohom dodomni tertwi.

 

Bisi kwtal hinkhaino baba Goria. BabaGoria hinkhaino bisi kwtal. Kaisa tai kaisa no kwraikhai  wngwise maya. Tamole hinkhai bisi kwtal hinkhai no baba goria baba goria hinkhaino hohom dodom tai khatung khajani ter. Kha kosonog lukurookni bisa bulaiwi khajalai nasinglai wi tonglaimanino pairiui bisi kwtalni puilani salni sasa swkang kwthar mohabuisu ni sao chini kha bai surihjaknai mwtai baba goria chini bisingo faio. Baba goriano uhrinai songduk dofani lukurok mani mani surimung raidatwi baba Goria no achukthai o achukrilaio. Baksa ba buisu ni salo achukrioi surimung chenglaio. Baksa khaiba bisi kwtalni puilani salo achukrioi surimung chenglaiio. Baba Goria desho beraina hinwi kha-kosong lukurok bai surijakna hinwi hammari chamari bilaina hinwi tai bebakno hamya chayani yakni yakakrinani hinwi chini bisingo faimani salo bebak kha-kosong lukurok kha-kwthar khaiwi kan-kwtal kanwi chuk-kwtal chumwi wase wareng khatung khaja tai hohoom dodom khaiwi kha-kaham yafarwi bono lamsok laio.

Baba Goria chini bisingo faiwi sokfai khaino bini surimung tai surimungno rwgwi kwthar Goria terbo chengjago. Busorni simi sena jora baba Goria no surinaibebak songduk dofani kha-kwthar lukurok mani mani surimung palaimung raida twi keboba wasok kaiwi, keboba kohl kaiwi, keboba wathwifang kaiwi tai keboba baba Goria ni sakmang no achukriui sal burum burum mutai barogwi surilaio, diyai laio. Keboba salsini romwi surilaio, keboba baba Goria thahngmani salo mwtai barogwi yakung suriui khulum rwkjak baio. Kha-kosong lukurok baksa baksa mani mani nogo Goria kaiwi surilaio baksa khaiba pal khai kaiwi surilaiio. Dofa bai dofa ni bisingo baba Goria ni surimung palaimung ni raidarog kisa misa ferlalimung nukjak fano fiyaba baba Goria no twiwi kha-kosong lukurokni wansukmung khakamung le thansase, bab Goriale kaisase, in` kokle kubui. Bebak dofani lukurokni diyailaimung, khaja laimung, rachablalimung, mwsalaimung, khani sanmungrokni kok kubuile kaisase.

Buisorni simi sena jora ni salrogo baba Goria lukurokni khawo mwswk khai jaga khwlai nawo je lukurok in` jorawo baba Goria ni kokno karwi tai kubuni kokno wansuk se manya. In` sal sini romwi surimung ni salrogo baba Goria no kwbangma bumungtwi ringwi khani bebak hamya chaya wansukmung rokno khibiwi gwnang kwrwini dofa kuchuk dofa hache ni ferlalimungni khakamungno khani tikhlai khibiwi cheraini simi bura bebak kha kwthar lukurok kaisa tai kaisa bai kwthalaiwi kha-kaham yafarlaio. Baba Goriano kwchang kwchangni salno, mailuma khulumano, kwchangni tonglaimung no, bayap charini salno tubunai, siyano sirinai, rwngya no rwngrinai, hamya chaya apod bipod biyal bigotani yakni yakagrinai, lukurokno fiyokrinai mwtai hinwi kha-kaisa khaiwi surilaio, diyai laio.

In` salsini salo baba Goria lukuroni sanmug, surimung, biyal bigotani hamya chayani kokno khwnana hinwi lailuma khuluma bilaina hinwi nok burum burum berailango. Baba Goria nok burum burum berai buru nukhungn I kok swngo tai nukhung ni kok khwnai hammari chamari rio. In` swhngmung tai hammari ni kokrook wngkha mwtwi,-

Baba Goria- O Goria mani Singaru?                  Singaru- Oi.

Baba Goria- mo nogo tamo?                         Singaru- Mwswi kosok.

Baba Goria-In` bisio rabaiya thumbaiya sok.

Baba Goria- O Goria mani Singaru?                 Singaru- Oi.

Baba Goria- In` nogo tamo?                         Singaru-Muisele.

Baba Goria-In` bisio hamya chaya kaisele.

Baba Goria- O Goria mani Singaru?                 Singaru- Oi.

Baba Goria- In` nogo tamo?                         Singaru-Tokthu.

Baba Goria-In` nogo taklai rangchak richak pungthu.

Mutai swngmung tai hamari rimungni ono chwng sio je baba Goria le hammari chamari ni mutaise. Tai fainai bisi lukurokni bagwi bomtwi ungno o swngmung tai hammai rimungni bisingtwi no saui mano. Mo kokle kubuise fia baba Goria ni in` hamari rimungno khawo chobwino kha kosong lukurok bisi kwtalo nukhung ni samug humung chengbaio tai thonwi nukhung hammarini saumung khwlai khailukurok borokni khani sanmung mano bebak sonoduk rokni khawo mwtwi puitu kwrak khai yarwng surwi tongo.

Buisorni simi senajora hohom dodom, wase wareng khatung khaja khaiwi baba Goriano surimungni ulo salsini ni salo baba Goria thahngmani salo bebak kha kosong lukurok je manmatwi keboba tokotwi bai keboba fol fokwlabai mwtai riui bono yakung suriui hamari chamari sanwi haino hai fanai bisio hamari chamari mailuma tai kwtal wansukmung tubui te waisa faifirdi hinwi surirwkjabaio khulum rwkjabaio.

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Ani College ni Salrok

Mr. Kamalendu Deb Barma

Regional Engineering College- Jalandhar; jethani ang computer science tai engineering porikha, aro kwbangma muitu khaijaknai mukumu tongo. A jora rogono ang nukkha thangma ni pohor ani fiyokjakya khakamung o fai nangfaimani. Tai kubuni kokrogno yakarwi ang morogno no kicha saui khwnarina muchungo. A kokrok ukologo ang college o kwtal tongfuru unsurwi thahngo, jefuru ang kwtal kukni tongmung chamung tai jwtak swlaijakma rokno kiching khai nanani kirijago. Tamo hinmale ang wanjwi mediuam ni tongmani, tai abaino ang campus bisingo puila sakno bui hai matongo. NIRVANA mungwi rwchapnai rokno fano se kwbangma tongo khwnai ang afuru wana jagkha. Aswkde kobor rokbo tong! Swkang puila o abono ang khapijaklia. Hifano jorabai gwdalwi abono ang ulo chajak kha. Waisa waisu swlaijakmani bo kahamno. Abono ang khabaino yachak kha.

A salrogo engineering rwngkhoryung ni satokmung (ragging) no kwtal swrwngnairok thor thor khai kirijagbaiio. Ani bo kicha kirima tongmani. Chakra swrwngnai rok khai abono satokmung ni jaga faro PDP- Personality Development Programme hinwi. Mo kaisa kwtal swrwngnai ni kothoma, je homnwino mungsa ya mungsa saui satokmung ni yohgwi thahngo; aboni bagwi chakra swrwngnai rok bono taibo satokna muchung jak kha. Borok khai bo nangmani slai bo belai kwchang se toongmani tai Hindi kok sana rwngya, athang kuthang khai saui ritwrwngo, abo khwnai chakra swrwngnai rok taibo khwnana muchungjag baio. Ulokhai salsa bo khwio kwchakha, tai chwng bono satokma nugwi belai khai tongthok jak kha. Baksa khai sakha abo hamkha, saisung sak sijakmani khai belai chaya.

Ano satokmung khai aswk mwnwikothok wngthalia. Ano tai baksa ani sakbaksa rokno khoroksa chakra swrwngnai ni khotolo ringwi twlangkha. Khoroksa chakra swrwngnai ni khotolo puila ma hapnani ani kha khatung khaja wngkha. A khotol Bollywood tai Hollywood ni naithokjwk rokbai sajokjak, fia aswk saf sutraya. Ash… bonogni jotoni khapangni wngna, tamo hinmale orobo Ash…..tai uro bo ash…. Chwng jotono bwtrang wngwi bachana dagikha tai jani jani sinimung ma salaikha. Chini sakhlaima khwnai borok tongthok jak kha tai kicha bijla kokthai rokbo ma sakha. Sana thahngkhai chwng bohrokni mwnwi kothok wngwi ma tongkha. Chini hobby rokno bohrok khatungwi swhngo, fia abono karwi chwngno athang kuthang khai funukna bagwi bo dagikha. Je ni chasmailaima bwrwi tongo borokno khai bebak khatungrio tai thathap thithip yafa khorop jago. Bebagwi abo kaisa tongthothok tongmani.

Mo ni ulo masa chakra swrwngnai swhngkha sabo Kashmiro thana muchung hinwi. Aswk kwbangma ni bising ang simino khatungwi yaktisa kha; tamo hinmale fainai tungblang jora berainale mananw ble. Ulole tamo wngnkha, Kashmiro thangwi sogwina jaga almari ni bokhrok sakase kasai ma tongwi sio, aro tongtwtwi no a satokmung no naikhlai ma tongkha. Fia orono kok pailia. Chakra swrwngnai thwgwi jani jani musnangjakma tongo, tai mo musnangjakma no chwngno jwngjalo khiklailkha, chwngno khakaimaya samung tangrikha. Ano khai bwrwi rok Mujra mwsa ma hai khai mwsana dagikha, tamo hinmale masa chakra swrwngnai a mwsamungno belaikhai naithokjakfu. Biado pungna chengkhai ang fla fla khai bwrwi hai khai mwsana ma chengkha. Afuru joto hou hou khai mwnwi baikha, angbo kicha lachi kothrokha. Fia abo aswk chaya tongmaya, tamo hinmale chwla ble. Swrwnglaima ni kokno sana thahngkhai kwbangma tongo; poja poja nokni samung(assignment), yakbaitangkol nani (practical), rwngchwlwi (theory), tai rikmani (drawing) to tongkhuno.

Afuru chwngno jora khaui rijago, bwswkni bisingo nokni samung thumwi rinani, abo twiwi bwswk se urum durum wnglai. Tamo hinmale sabo yakbai tangkolmani simi yogwi mannai? Haifano chwngno mo kwbangma swrwngna lama funuk kha chini puila bisio. Mono karwi chini chini rwngkhok swrwngma bo belali pailaiya tongmani. Sal kutung ni jora o no kaisa rwngma (period) paikhai chwng rwngkhok (class room) khungsa ni siimi tai khungsa rwngkhogo ma thahnglaio. Aboni bising se baksa fwnrwng nai ni fwnrwngma chwng thopsa fano buji manya. Abo chwngno wansukma habirio, tamo chwngba aswkde butuwa eba a fwrwngnai de aswk kwrwng! Ang kha khai paithak ni kokno kubui wngkhwna. Mono sanani thahng furu ang sak sakno narwkmanlia, jethani fwnangjak lekhamung (applied Mathametics) fwrwngnai kotor (professor) masano tabukbomuitu mankhu. Bini mung Dr. Shiv Kumar tongmani tai bo IIT ni aqeqngajk tongomani. Tai lekhamung o Ph.D. khaijak. Bo bahai khai fwrwng wansuk de manno? Haikhai miling malang ni bagwi kha tonwi tongdi, taamo hinmale bo bijab nasikyasa bo thaisa fano fwrwngmanya, abobo rwngkhotol bising bo bini yak baithang bai swihjak mani se. chakrarok homnwi chongo je bo malkhung ni kwlalifuruse bini muitu wngmano swkamai faikhwna. Kicha Bollywood ni hai. Fia abo kicha fano kubui tongmaya.

Borok fatra thwngmano karwi khai chakrarok kahamno tongbai mani. Borok homwni chwngno chubana bai chini gana tongmani. Bongni morogma kwrwng chini bagwi kaham wngkha tai chini lam funuk kha. Ang tabuk fano muitu mano, chini khoroksa chakra Jintu Chetia no. Bo Meghaloy ni tongmani tai kubuino mwkhang kwpai (smart) tongmani. Bo homnwi chwngno chubana bagwi tongo tai chini salkabai fasingni bororokni bagwi sotonma tongo. Bebak samungo yak kumun wngmabai bono belai chajak baio, bwrwi rok khai to sana kokse kwrwi. Fia mwtwi rogo khai bo belai kwchang thothose. Abo ano belai khak hamrio je mwswk borok kaham chakra chini logi kwrwikha. Semano Bangalore o kaisa dosa manwi chwngno yakarwi homnwi ni bagwi in` masing khibiui thahng paikha. Nini fola bomkhoro (heaven) jaga manjathu. Bo chini chakra rokni bising rangchak budul tongmani. Mangkotor jintu, nono chwng khatango. Kwtal rokno yachakmani ulni bisi rogo khai chwng bebak nukhung kotorma ni borok hai wnglai kha, thansa khai jatre potre samung RECFEST, MUDRA, CRICKET hai rok ma tanglai kha, tabuk fano baksa kokrok muitu mankhu. Gana ni cinema hall o cinema naima to pogwi manyano. Ang ulo bujikha je kwtal rokno yachakma ni salsa swkangni satokma le belaino nangmani se. ang saimano a salrook tai kifilwi faiglak, fia jefuru bo chwng malailaio afuru no chwng tongthok laio, tai waisa wuisuba muktwi bo kwlai faio.

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Culture of Tribals of Tripura

 Ms Welbti Deb Barma

Tripura kingdom is very old. The kingdom was ruled by 186 kings till its merger to Indian Union on 15 th October 1949. the origin of the name Tripura Kingdom, was in the name of mighty king Tripur. Some scholars believe the name was originated from Kok Borok word Twi-pra, though there are few more opinions. The kingdom was founded by king Durhya sometime in the year 3997 B.C., i.e. 6000 years back from 2004 (A constitutional History of Tripura by Dr. I. Gan Choudhury). The boundary of Tripura changed from large to presently a small area of 10,400 sq. km. in the North-East corner of India.

The people of Tripura, in past comprised mainly of 5 (five) communities. They are the tripuris, the Jamatias, the Reanqs, the Noatias and the Haloms (all clanes). They originated from the common stock, the mongoloid from family Indo-Tibetan. The ‘PANCHA-TRIPURA' is the symbol with 5 stars in the Royal coat of arms of Tripura's old Royal symbol. It means the unity, solidarity and strength of those five communities in building strong Tripura kingdom by the mutual understanding and active participation by them. Their language is kokborok, a common origin from Tibeto-Burmese tinquistic race.

The term ‘tribals' was given by britishers, Tripura tribal has rich cultural heritage. The culture of Tripura Nation is the product of several million centuries. E.B. Tylor (1832-1917), in his famous book “PRIMITIVE CULTURE' gave definition of culture as, ‘culture or civilization taken in its wide ethugraphic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morales, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of the society. The four important characteristics of culture considered important by Bidney (1953-USA-Indiana University) are arti-facts, socio-facts, agri-facts and meti-facts.

Arts & Crafts

Tripura is rich in ancient glory for its old sculptures, stone and inseriptions, architectural remains and magnificent arts and crafts. The Rajmala gives the account of rich cultural tradition. There are varieties of craftsman in ancient Tripura such as the weavers, spinniers, goldsmiths, ivory workers, wood, bamboo, cane hide and so forth. Mat makers, basket makers, wood workers of highest skills are to be admired. The processed agar wood, spices and ivory artifacts are so wonderful that deserves recognition of Tripuris rich culture and civilization. Every lady was expert weaver engaged in leisure, mostly after lunch at home or at temporary hut at cultivation plot or jhumland. The arts made in bamboo crafts like khuturuk, kisib (stand fans) etc. are unique and attractive. Traditionally the RISA woven by highly skilled mother is presented to her daughter-in-law to show love, affection and as a token of acceptance as bride. Similar is the offering of precious golden ornaments to daughter-in-law. The tradition is continuous even today. This RISA is also laid in worshipping, religious functions and festivals. In the events of death, of costliest cloths woven with fine embroideries are given to dead bodies along with other rituals for the peace of deported souls, as they believed in re-birth.

The industrial civilization of Tripura, which got momentum in Trilochan's reign, was incomparable and the fame and name of the kingdom reached outside world sending demands of the textile products from Tripura for exports. However, the pace of development in the cultural tradition could not be kept in continuity at present due to various reasons such as socio-political and socio-economic mainly.

Agri-facts

Both plain land plough cultivation and high land slash and burn cultivation is continuing among Tripura Tribals. The horticulture, fruit production, vegetable cultivation and variety of cropping rotation pattern is scientific cultivation. In addition to productions from cultivation lands, the tribals are fonds of forest food, and wild edible varieties, the roots suckers and medicinal herbs and shrubs. This is the basic of economy. The traditional herbal treatment has the large lists of medicinal herbs and animals, a great treasure of the medicines used by tribals for treatment of ailments.

Society and Civilisation

The Tripuris or Borok had attained a high degree of material civilization evidenced from the architecture and archeological remains. The evidences have not fully been excavated in the ancient capitals of great Tripura Kingdom yet.

The Tripuri society since immemorial are habituated to build house forming Kami (para) or village at the high places where no water stagnation or floods can adversely affect them. They select paras where good water and healthy air are abundantly available. Kumaraswamy in his book ‘civilization' indicated that the society which is capable of producing the food and act mutually to help each others, individually or in group at work, a co-operative manner at work culture and socio-economic activities are the best virtues which declares Tripuri society as civilized. Perhaps the Tripura society is above all in North-East India, being the oldest race and the oldest civilized Nation in their vast kingdom. The festivals and cultural functions celebrated by Tripura tribals are considered of high standard. The musical instruments used by them are Dandu, Chougpreng, Sarinda, SumuiTreng etc. The dances of leban bumani, garia, hajagiri, etc are lively and attractive.

In education, like other parts of the continents, the verbal or oral teaching was the method of education in Tripura. The girls are imparted informal education the primer in weaving arts, embroidery known, as RITHEK-High or higher secondary course constitutes more difficult design formulae. They are also taught to become expert in all household works the elders, the mother and womenfolk in society take care of teaching. Similarly the head of the family has control and command to teach the males in body building, food gathering, crop husbandry, bamboo and wood arts, house making, animal husbandary and trade etc. They were also taught reciting, counting, memorizing, story telling from the hundreds of oral literature-folktales, folklores, legands, stories, mythologies and the story of kings, queens, rajkumars, rajkumaris, Mantris, etc. These had great value in building the children and youths for their moral, mental and physical development to confront the challenges in life. These values had built strong kingdom, maintained peace, love, truth and rich culture.

Administrative Unit

The society of Tripuris had the political and administrative units. The village chief the choudhary, Rai, Sardar or Lal nominated on hereditary way is vested responsibility to look after the social affairs, religious affairs, unity, customary laws and local governance of Tripura villages. The sanction behind the appointment of Choudhury or head man of the kami or paras thus had the approval of the people's overwhelming confidence, solidarity and faith in the leadership.

Food Habit and Culture

They use highly scented spices, delicious food of both non-vegetarian and vegetarian dishes with less oil, pastry, cakes and other popular Banqui, etc. the chakhwi, its use in curry and cloth cleaning is one of the old culture. The wander, godok and penqmani curry in the raw of scented bamboo node and bamboo shoot, mushrooms or scented curry leaves are the few examples of traditional culture food. Traditional preparation and drink of wine made of rice in the festivals and rituals are part of the culture in past, but this tradition is considered harmful now. The women folk are fond of floral ornaments. The beauty making culture of the society with the herbal differ from one community to other, but this floriculture is common to them.

Religion, Morale and Ethical Values

Independent Tripura was a vast land of riches. She had a social system founded on ethical and religious values. The trivals are animists, usually worshipping duties, of gods and goddess. The Shiva, the garia which is also Shiv, the burasas, the lampras, the twima and the nature were the deities. They were saktas and some of them were tantrics. The worship is performed by the Ochais or medicine man. The fourteen gods and goddesses are among the deities in traditional religion. The beliefs in which crafts and many superstitions and rituals exist in the tribals. The festivals include Maikwtal chamani, bisn-a ritual to offer respect to dead souls of relatives and garia festival etc.

Social Changes and Restoration of Culture

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru pointed out in his Discovery of India, that changes or conversion is the natural phenomenon in the modern world. In long period, the traditional culture was influenced by outside world and there are gradual changes. The changes took place through sanskritisation or vaisuabism and sanatani or christianisation. But the basic virtues have not changes in some areas, but some erosion or corruption have taken place altering basic values of Tribal life due to socio-cultural and social-political, etc.

The village leadership, the choudhuris or sardars were/are replaced by democratic leader of some parties. The traditional social justice based on customary law or performance of rituals and festivals had suffered due to lack of knowledge on societal and other traditional norms. Thus the self-covering of village units has been badly affected.

In performing rituals/shradahs, the traditional ochais, galim or chantais were replaced by Brahmans and korta qusais. In the name of shradas and in funerals ceremony, instead of helping the families who witnessed mourn for the deaths of family members, the donations of land, cattles and cash or other properties to Brahmins as imposed to simple tribals made it very difficulty to afford. They had to incur more expenses while going for asthis (bone) immersion in sacred tirthas outside the state of kashi, gaya, brindaban. Etc. It had caused miserable economic condition of tribal hindus. The Korta Gusais used to collect money from the disciplines. This has distorted tribal village economy. The situations of that kind sometime are considered change of socio-cultural and socio-economic culture.

The immorality was not known to tribals. The immorality trend in tribal society was introduced in Hajagiri/laxmi pura by compulsory practice of stealing goods of others. It had made very bad impact on tribal societies. The theft was known to tribals. But the ritual of this kind taught the tribals to become thief and to demoralize them by teaching perfect robbery or dacoity. This was the incorrect and imperfect ritual taught to tribal in the name of religion.

The Baisnaism and sadus, who adopted Hinduism, had played a very alarming ideology. Its main teaching could be begging and saved living. This practice invited and encouraged begging in tribal society, which could be considered couse in Tripura culture. It might have also created a mass section of lazy people with addiction of witering. However, it is also considered important that the avoidance of wine, meats, and propogation of message of religious way of life, neatness and cleanliness had favourably brought changes in tribals life towards learning, knowledge and wisdom at some areas.

The tribals had correct code of conduct. The mutual understanding on give and take ideology, the Yaqul Khil, exchange of materials and co-operative form of work culture got eroded in the walk of life influenced by Aryanisation or sanskritisation. The Superme divinity and ideology of Tripura fundamentalism was according to motto in Rajmala to die for the mother land is greater than heaven. This spirit and force iquited them to protect their affairs from Muslim invasions or aggression of other invaders in past and Tripura remained free from outside foreign rulers till 1949. But the sanskritisation and socio-political factors have created a different society. The attempt to improve through education, Government jobs and economic development policies etc. was to some extend successful since 1977-78, but the lost ethical codes remained in received.

The social change and modernization takes in tool usually as a natural process and these were conversions among educated tribals, hoping to find new spiritual ways for salvation. The Christianity among tribals, tripuris in particular has got momentum after 1980, after the riot between tribals and Hindu Bengalis.

Preservation of Cultural Heritage—a few approach

The urgency for right perception, direction and action with pressing organs in the most important for preservation and revival of rich cultural heritage of Tripura tribals. The goal of individual attempt or organizational attempt is to be made to bring back the past glory and golden tradition. The loss of language is the main reason of identity crisis and fall of culture. Therefore, every attempt is to be made to revive language, to enrich it and to use it. The acculturation or assimilation or kokborok linguistic race may be avoided. The rich cultural heritage must be maintained by the social celebrations where all the members of the community must participate. Mass awareness for such social gathering may be the way to enrich culture. The common Tripura national festivals of traditional society such as Maikwtal chama (now harvest festival), Bighu (the occasion to pay homage to departed souls of relatives), Bisi kwtal (New Year), other social gathering at child offering, marriage, funerals, etc. should be clebrated irrespective of different faiths, families, and ideology by all the youths, the old , the workers, the agrarians and politicians. The secular and democratic way of improving the cultural heritage should be the ideal practice without any difference in opinions. Their own way of ethical values and morale to re-build the eroded culture may march hand in hand with total unity of love among each other. In celebrating the festivals and social gatherings everybody should wear the traditional dresses, organize musical and cultural functions with humble objectives. Every individual must take part in inculcating the talents in the cultural elements, say in the field of arts, music, dances, sports and games, embroideries, food preparation to bring as par Chinese food which occur anchostors rich cultural activities are considered honorable for presenting it. Tribal society wherever they live, may initiate to flourish the culture by mass participation and awareness. The most important is that all the members of Tripura society irrespective of all ages both males and females must be involved in the moral development activities, individually.

Lastly, as the tribal culture has grown in the way of life in forests, the attention must be made to improve the ecology and eco-restoration principles. The forest and natural resource is the home. The survival of culture depends on the existence forests and human habitat. The destruction or decay of tribal culture may be due to our negligence to the forest and natural resource. The socio-economic and social-cultural growth may be the focus to restore the culture. Thousand species of animals and plants are extinct due to habitat loss and the eco-community, the members of many animal kingdom similarly disappeared due to ecological imbalance. Thus the human societies in forest, through apparently could not realize on the gradual change or destruction of culture because of habitat loss, must now take step to conserve the forest for the sake of preserving culture. The constitution also provides defining forests and wild life as a part of our cultural heritage and makes it obligatory by all citizens to preserve it for our cultural preservation.              

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Tripuri Identity

Dr. Atul Debbarma

The Tripuris are confused of their identity more in recent times then ever before. Some would like to identify them selves as Borok, some as Bru, some as Tripurites, some as Tripurians, and some as a tribal of Tripura. In such a scenario a common man is unable to decide what actually he belongs to. The answer to the question is more complex then thought.

A person has two definite identities, namely a racial and a national identity. The Homo sapiens species has three evolutionary races, as per the western scholars; these are the Negroid, the Caucasoid, and the Mongoloid. The Caucasoid race is again sub divided into the sub races, like the Indo Aryan, Indo Australoid, and the Dravidian etc.

The national identity is determined by the country or the state that the people belong to. This way the people of Tamilnadu draws their identity racial ethnically as Dravidian and sub nationality as the Tamil and nationality as Indian. So the racial identity of Tamil can be traced this way, Caucasoid>Dravidian>Tamil.

Similarly the people of Punjab identifies themselves as Indo-Aryan racially and Punjabi as sub nationality, Indian as their nationality.

Now I would like to ask an open question to all the educated indigenous youths of Tripura, ‘what is your identity in terms of racially and sub nationality, and nationality wise?'

What is my answer to this question as per the standard norms is this, racially we the indigenous people of Tripura belong to Mongoloid races' Tibeto-Burman group's Borok/Bodo euthenics race, sub nationality wise Tripuri, and nationality wise Indian. We can trace our racially like this, Mongoloid>Tibeto-Burman>Borok/Bodo>Tripuri.

Before the British occupation of India most of the states in India were independent and were ruled by the kings of that state, like state of Tripura; several many other states like, Manipur, Punjab, Maharashtra etc. at that time. The subjects of the state used to be identified by the name of the state only. The identity of the people had been synonymous with the name of state. For example, the people of Tamilnad state is known as the Tamil, the citizen of Punjab as Punjabi, similarly the habitant of the Bengal as Bengali.

The origin of present day Tripura state dates back to Mahabharata period, there is no doubt about it. It had been mentioned in the list of the kingdoms on the emperor Ashoka's pillar.

The people of Tipra call themselves as the Tiprasa, Tipra, the tippera or the Tripuri. The king used to classify his subjects as Tipra/Tripura and non-Tipra. ‘Tipra' sued to mean to the ‘pancha Tripura', that is the indigenous Tripuri people. In all the historical documents of Tripura, the historians, whether Indian or English, had also described the subjects as Tipra/Tipperah. Nowhere in the history of Tripura the nomenclature of Borok or Tribal had been inscribed for the Tripuris in any documents.

Now, the question is since when the confusion had been created? And on what interest?

When India got independence from British, Tripura had to accommodate large number of refugees from the erstwhile East Pakistan. This influx of refugee had changed the demographic pattern of Tripura inversely; the majority Tripuris being reduced to minority, the refugee became the majority community. Their status had been marginalized in the competition by the majority refugee community. The Tripuri people had been alienated from their agricultural land and ancestral land gradually. The name of the villages, area locality, rivers, hills, fields roads etc had been changed to and were given new names to suits the tongue of the new comers, slowly but systematically.

Gradually the turn comes to the national identity of the Tipra/Tripuri people. Subsequently a tricky question was put forward, should not the word Tripuri represents to all the inhabitant of Tripura irrespective of caste, creed, and language? First the confusion and dilemma was created in the minds of the educated Tripuris. Many of our Tripuri people also joined hands and raised the voice with this crocked people not understanding the meaning and intention of the purpose of the question.

But had it been the meaning in case of Tripura then should not it mean that all the peoples residing in Tamilnadu be Tamils or all the subjects of the Punjab be Punjabi whichever ethnic or linguistics group they belong? So to clarify the confusion the Tripuris are given the identity of Tribal. One finds more difficult as a Tripuri has to be identified with eighty million tribal population of India. Would the Tripuri be same as to that of Santhals of Jharkhand or the Nagas of Nagaland? All the tribes have their distinctive name or identity. So even if we are tribal we also have our identity as Tripuri, like, the Bodo, Garo, etc. The people of Tripura should be called as Tripura basi not as Tripuri.

The second points raised against the branding of all indigenous kokborok-speaking inhabitant of Tripura, as Tripuri is that Tripuri denotes only to those people who bear the surname of Debbarma/Devburman. This is nothing but the ‘divide and rule' policy used by crocked majority people joined by the selfish divisive groups of Tripuri people, misled and misguided by invisible hands. The English also ruled the Indians applying the same theory, now we are ruled over by the same tactics. Such divisive polices and force had successfully created division among the various clans/sub tribes of Tripura and many clans refuse to identify themselves as Tripuri.

A section of educated Tripuri people argue that the word Tripura/Tripuri is a Sanskrit word, hence should not be used to identify the indigenous people of Tripura. I agree to it, cent percent truth, there is no second opinion about it. But I say this is again a silly argument to create a confusion, dilemma and alienation from its motherland. It may be a fact that Tripura is a corrupt form of Tipra in Sanskrit, which had even been mentioned in Mahabharat. But, some time the choice does not remain in the hands of the concerned people. For instance the India/Indian is not the term what Indians call them selves which is Bharat, or Bharatiya. But in out side world we are known as Indian only, whether we like it or not.

Same way the ‘Bangali' word which the Bengali term them selves had turned to ‘Bengali' in the tongue of English and ‘Bangal' in the tongue of Hindi speaking people. In the same process the indigenous people's Tipra had been corrupted to ‘Tipperah' in the tongue of the English as and as ‘Tripura' in the Indo-Aryan tongue.

Similarly the Japan/Japanese word is not their word and what they identify themselves but it is the Chinese word, by which they are known world wide, other wise it is the Nippon they call it, and the list of example too long enough to enumerate here. Like wise the word Naga or Manipuri are also Sanskrit words as much as the Tripura. The Naga word is not even a derivative form of any indigenous word but a pure Sanskrit word unlike Tripura. But there has been no demand for the changes of naga word or confusion among them. Can we change at this in juncture, which was in use since the mythological times? Where as we could not change even the names of our own village where we reside or the rivers from this corruption, leave apart the states name.

To avoid from this confusion and do away from the loaned word some Tripuri intellectuals have discovered a new name for their identity, the Borok, which literally means human being, as if earlier we were primates before the discovery of this new word, had not been human beings.

Their argument is that the word ‘borok' have been abundantly used in various Tripuri household objects.

Some researcher has discovered ten different meanings of the word ‘borok'. One of the meanings of ‘borok' is human being. If that were so then it would be more confusing to use the word ‘borok' to denote the Tripuri people. The argument is that in many kokborok words the ‘borok' are used to denote the Tripuri, such as rignai-borok, da-borok, mui-borok, tok-borok, khaklu-borok, kamchwlwi-borok etc.

But I would say that the ‘borok' used is not specific to denote Tripuri. Rignai-borok means the hand woven loincloths worn by Tripuri women. Even manipuri woven is also called rignai borok, but it is known as; ‘mugli bumul,' that means manipuri design.

Similarly the white gourd that is harvested in the shifting cultivation, jhum, is called ‘khaklu-borok'. Even though the same may be brought from Meghalaya, or Mizoram. Traditionally used vegetables like bamboo shoots, banana flower etc are termed as mikhwtwng borok, in spite of the fact that it may have been brought from Arunachal pradesh or Himachal pradesh. So the theory that every thing that denotes borok does not mean Tripuri but any thing that is traditionally used.

The word ‘borok' basically means a sub race of the great Mongoloid race, a branch of Tibeto-Burman group, the large Borok/Bodo sub-race. Like the Dravidian is sub race of Caucasoid race which includes different community like the Tamil, the Malayali, and the Telegus etc. Similarly the Borok/Bodo sub race also includes the Bodo, the Tripuri, the Dimasa, the Koch, the Garo, etc. So borok is our sub racial identity, where as the Tripuri is our ethnic sub national identity.

There are objections that different sub-tribes of Tripura form different ethnic groups, so they cannot be clubbed into single identity. It is nothing but absurd and silly arguments and our-self succumbing to the ‘divide and rule' theory of English people. The fact is that the Tripuri speak a same languages, with little dialectical variation from different sub tribes and region, but not to the extent the Bengali's different sub languages differs each other. It is also not a valid argument that they cannot be grouped into one because of their language differences. If more than twenty different sub tribes who does not even understand each other's languages, who have to use the corrupt form of Assamese to communicate can identify as Naga, then why not we different sub tribe speaking and understanding Kokborok can be identified as Tripuri/Tiprasa?

What's is the objection to use the newly found word ‘Borok' to denote all the kokborok speaking people of Tripura?

The single most important objection is that we, the Tripuri are being alienated from the name of our motherland, to which we belong for over four millennium. Because the word Borok does not intricately linked to our motherland, Tipra/ Tripura. It throws us in to the same category of people at par as to those of Bengali, Chakmas, or Mizo's as far as the residency is concern in the eyes of out side world. It does not linked to me to my motherland as son of the soil as it denote to Bengali, Manipuri, Tamils, and Punjabi etc. to their respective states. If the Borok claims to be the indigenous of Tripura than other people also equally has the right to claim them selves as the indigenous. And some people are actively involved to prove that the Tripura which is mentioned in the Mahabharata, or in the Ashoka's pillar is not this land of Tripura, and the state of Tripura had been the land of all the people of Tripura since the ancient time, though it is other way. It is not denying fact that in all ages of time in the history every country or kingdom had never been hundred percent homogenous, some little fraction of other people had always inhabited other country, so it was also not exceptional in case of Tripura, but majority had always been the Tripuri people.

Secondly, the Borok is our sub racial identity, which includes the ethnic group like, Bodo, Garo, Dimasa, Koch, Kamtapuri etc, like the Dravidian, the Indo-Aryan, Austric sub race. So it cannot be used for the Tripuri's exclusively.

Thirdly, when ever we are in the out side world, (meaning by other than Tripura) we give our identity as ‘borok'; we have to explain that we are from Tripura, that we were the original inhabitant of Tripura. As more and more people are now going out side of our state Tripura for study, service and business purpose, more frequently we encounter with other people.

Fourthly, if the word ‘borok' termed to identify the Tripuri people then we have to propagate our selves afresh to all the outer world, other wise, which till date they know to us as Tripuri.

Critics argue that the Tripuri term is used for the Debbarma clan only, and so other sub tribe should not submit their identity to it. Other sub tribes like the Riangs, the Jamatias, etc. shall not be called Tripuri. But it does not mean that they are taking up the identity of Debbarma sub tribe, instead they are taking the identity of thousands of year old their motherland, Tripura's name, which one should be proud of! The Debbarma, Jamatia, Noatia, Riangs etc are sub tribe of Tripuri like the different sub tribe of Naga, or like the different castes of the Brahmin, the baishya, sudras, the kayasth, baniyas etc of Bengali.

For the sake of arguments even if it is the term used to denotes particular sub tribes of Tripura it should not be so hard to sallow it. For example, in may state and country similar nomenclature are found, like in the state of Maharahtra, the Marathi denotes to all who are the indigenous of that state, which actually had come from the warrior Maratha caste of Maharashtra. Similarly there were twelve different sub tribes when the Jews migrated to the present day Israel from Egypt. One of the sub tribe among them was Judah, and its from this sub tribe Judah that the name Jews derived.

Still a section of intellectual will argue that the word ‘Borok' will unite to all the sub tribe of Tripura, which is acceptable to all clans. To this I have some reservation, as to the term a section will even argue that ‘the term is not ‘borok', but Bru,' so do we have answer to this argument?

Some people debates that people should be identified by their mother tongues, so the kokborok-speaking people should be known as Borok. First of all the name of our mother tongue is very recently coined one, which was earlier known as Tripuri language, unlike the states name which is more than four thousand years at least! The second point is that in many instances the language they speak may be little different from their identity, like the Jews mother tongue is Hebrew, majority Chinese peoples mother tongue is Mandarin. Thirdly, by this definition then we will not be including the Halams, who are other wise included in the ‘pancha Tripura' of our king. As their mother tongue is not kokborok, where as the Tripuri includes to all five Tipras.

Very recently the borok term is being used by some of our fellow Tripuri to denotes as tribe, then we should call all the tribes of the worlds as borok. It is again misleading and confusing. Some people are using the word tripurites to denote the Tripuri, it is to divert from the main identity of Tripuri, tactfully using to confuse and mislead. It only means the citizen of Tripura, that is the ‘Tripura basi' that includes all the Tripuri, Chakma, Bengali, etc residing in Tripura.

Some critic would ask me, what shall be he identity of those Kokborok speaking people residing in other countries like Bangladesh? First of all the region where Tripuri people are residing were part of Tripura state only, which was separated during the independence. Secondly where ever Tripuri people reside they will be called as it is like the Tamil, Bengali are known in which ever part of the world they live in.

The next question arise is what term should actually be used to identify us, Tripuri or Tipra or Tiprasa, some may ask. There should not be any confusion in that. To the out side world we should be known as Tripuri, where as among our selves, in our language as Tiprasa or Tipra.

So let us forget all our preconceived idea, preoccupied thought, and let us all the indigenous people, the ‘pancha Tripura' of our king of Tripura identify our selves as Tripuri. It not only will prove our indigenousness but will also denote that we are the sons of the soil. It is not only our birthright, but also our hereditary right, our historical right, our ancestral right; our indigenous right, our right on our mother land Tripura. Let us not be divided, be mislead, and misguided by the shrewd arguments of enemy force. No force on this earth can snatch our identity from the name of our motherland. Let us not abandon our motherlands name from our identity. Open up your closed mind, shed your preoccupied idea, throw away your preconceived thought, and think afresh. Hold your head high, and say proudly that ‘I am a Tripuri.' No adjectives, ad verve, nouns or word is required to signify that you are from the state of Tripura, no evidence is needed to prove that you are the indigenous and original inhabitant of Tripura. No power in this earth can detach us from the right to identify our selves with our motherland Tripura state. Let us not be divided by the crocked arguments of our foes and the politicians or the religious leaders.

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An Invitation to Change

Er. Kamalendu Debbarma

“The world is changing”. This is a very common statement which we hear in daily life. It may sound very insignificant as we know it's a fact to be hardly bothered if taken with little light of seriousness then you can find this word “change” has intervened in different spheres of our life in a drastic way changing our themes, aspiration, culture and a lots more to just… “ CHANGE ”. Change in human life can be categorically classified into two ways. One change is the real change where the person accepts it factual and moves overlooking different aspects of life. Other change is the illusionary change wherein one builds illusionary wall against one's real and refuse to accept the uninviting changes moreover to create totally renewed changes either to shying away from the changes or to bury it instead of facing it.

Acceptance of changes and facing it by moving along with the tide could be beneficial and at the same time harmful too. Beneficial in the sense it gives us the potential to discover the world around us. We inherit a lot of terms of attitude and demeanour from our parents. Does it mean we will keep inheriting all norms in our all sphere of life? Of course not. Now we are in such stage where we can invite changes for ourselves. But changes sometimes bring undesired wants to. To narrate it elaborately, we can focus on the slow death of our moral values. Wealth and power have influenced our life so much so that it surpasses all our relationship. Human emotions are not given penny concern. We may have become materialistic point of view but have become very poor in moral strength. The present generation and the future are bound to be very intelligent due to the force of development in lifestyle. With this parents too have kept their orthodox views at bay. On the contrary they are very supportive in what ever their children do. But can this assure of them the old age support from their children. Will they have them near when they are alone waiting with hopeful eyes? Ironical, isn't it?

But beside these there is one change which is illusionary. Changes are co-linked with the above changes as all the changes are interlinked. Sometimes we go in search of certain needs which are nearby but we do not feel them as our mind is conditioned in a different way. Why do teenagers resort to drugs? This is because they overlook insignificant things but can give you immense happiness. Some did learn about it and pacified their wandering soul by confining to moral values and to respect both oneself and the others feelings. Todays youngsters feel that moving away from their culture can give them unique modernized identity. This instead may leave them in such juncture where they will find themselves far from their own people and near to the artificial world. We should understand the value of our enriched culture and preserve it. It has given some of the most profound knowledge and truth of life. It has existed since many years. It teaches us to show high degree of respect towards our seniors and for our life. It is a matter of shame some of us are alluding ourselves and making blunder in the name of change. Stay far from illusionary trap. The universe is like a mirror if you smile it will smile along with you. But never let it smile on you. Nowadays it has become a trend of fashion to compare ourselves with the West. You may found helpless sometimes thinking on that our ways of living are backward, backward than the western lifestyle. In my view they may be right in their way of living. Does it say we are wrong in our way of living. Does not it illusionary change to adopt western philosophy where your soul is adorned with eastern culture. The ethics in our way of living may be unethical to them and vice versa. So stay far from illusionary trap of changing. But my friends have you ever imagine the Westerners are now also alienated towards the Eastern philosophy. They now started practicing yoga, adopting dietary and eastern philosophy for improving their lives. As Swami Vivekananda also said we need to combine the western technology with eastern philosophy . This will help us to develop our society morally and spiritually.

So what for delay …start practicing it from now.

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Crisis in The Making

Mr. Kahamnuk Jamatia

Some years back hardly would anyone have thought that we would be having something called 'The Delhi Tripura society', comprising of the people of the Tripuri community right here in the capital of the Nation. But today it's a reality. Not so long ago, it was quite rare for someone of our community to be able to study in Delhi (or any other place outside Tripura) and was a matter of pride for the family and awe for the rest. But today, we are in substantial number here, to be able to form a society. In fact, there is hardly any renowned educational place in the country where we wouldn't find someone or the other doing his studies.

Achievement? Well, yes it is. Nobody can deny this but perhaps we need to have a closer look at it. It is said that 'All good things begin at home', so let's begin with our state, our home. All of us are very much aware that most of the schools in the interior places of our state are for namesake only. In most of the places there are shortages of teachers and staff. There is lack of qualified subject teachers and the students have to manage with below par teaching. Add to this the poor attendance of the teachers…. for whatever reasons, that's separate matter altogether and I am not going into it's detail and we don't have a very good picture of quality of education that these students receive. In the less fortunate places, there aren't even any school buildings and even if there is one, it has long time ago become a branch of the WWF (World wildlife fund)!!

Under such condition it isn't surprising that the pass rate of these so-called schools are almost nil. Since these students are from poor socio-economical background they cannot come to the cities for their studies and hence end up as school dropouts. Thus only the luckier ones with relatively better socio-economical background are able to avail proper education in the cities and progress further in life. The world runs in cycles. Education improves socio-economical status and good education comes only with good socio-economical background. Hence the rich becomes richer and the poor becomes poorer. When we see this in a larger frame, we will find that only a small fraction of our society is progressing whereas the larger fraction is regressing deeper into darkness. Thus a gap is slowly arising within our community. If it continues this way then it is not difficult to forecast a scenario, when this gap will be so wide that it cannot be bridged. This socio-economic gap will give rise to a feeling of alienation, of deprivation and discrimination within our own community. This gap will someday engulf our entire community.

My thoughts and understanding of the matter may be wrong but just a mere possibility should make us think about it. Let us give it a thought and see what can be done to prevent such a crisis in future. Now, then lets see how life is outside our home. Every year many of us (students) get admitted in different reputed colleges outside our state. Some are in professional institutes and some are in general colleges. Our families, in spite of their financial hardships, somehow manage our costly expenditure of our education. So far so good. And what do we do?

The results speak everything .If we compare the number of students get in admitted and number of students graduating every year, then we get a very sorry figure. But sorry, we aren't. Are we? Its time that we realise the gravity of our irresponsibility. Instead of laying a strong foundation for our coming generations to build our society upon, we are gradually loosing whatever ground we already had. It's high time that we should do our self-analysis and work together for the enlightment of our society, our community. Or else there is a crisis in the making and doomsday awaits all of us.

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Communication Gap

Dr. Biplab Jamatia

Whether you believe it or not, but I firmly believe that “ communication gap is one of the most important problem in our day to day life.” Due to this problem, misunderstandings grow which lead to increased distance between two hearts. If the distance increases persistently then generation gap arises. Just as after every earthquake, cracks appear on the walls of houses, in the same way after every misunderstanding an invisible crack appears in a relation which gradually leads to an invisible wall within the very crack thus bars us from understanding the emotion of our near and dear ones. Previously, all of us use to stay in a house but now a house within ourselves. This is the reason why we cannot understand or try to understand the problems of our own people.

Traditionally it was believed that there should be a gap between the older member and the younger member of a family. The main purpose for this gap was the notion that elders will gain respect when they are separated from the younger generation and that their words would be carried out at any cost if they acted as the “awe inspiring” elder. With the effect of this mentality most of the senior people did not use to communicate about their experiences, attitudes, problems, desires and feelings.

Sadly, things have not changed much though the circumstances leading to the gap might have changed. An individual who has undergone the problem of communication gap in his early life carries out the same problem in his life when he becomes senior to many people. This problem is not limited only to the seniors and juniors but also affects people within the same age group. This is because we do not give proper attention to communication skill, we do not feel it necessary to communicate and we just ignore the problem pretending that it just does not exist. In such a situation it's hardly surprising that a big communication gap exist among the two generations. Furthermore, nobody is trying to bridge this gap. Perhaps, because an individual has been alienated.

I do agree that our elders should get proper respect irrespective of their occupation and educational status. But comparing one elder who shares his life with younger just like a friend and the other are maintaining the gap. Definitely there will be a significant difference of respect within the two seniors from the same younger. A common question asked to all elder (I am also elder to many younger) expecting respect from younger generation is that how many times they have shared their experiences with them. How many times they have tried to feel their day-to-day problems? How many times they have supported the decisions of the younger generation? How many times they have tried to understand their need of independence? The truth is that an alarming number of youngsters feel that their parents do not spend enough time with them.

There are also many questions that can be put before youngsters. Do youngsters respect their elders and try to understand their emotions? How many times have youngsters tried to rise up to the level of expectation set by their elders? How many times have they participated in a healthy discussion with the elders? How many times have they tried to understand the limitations of their parents? How many times have they tried to make their parents understand their problems, desires and aim in life and explain the justification for it? How many times have youngsters given a thought that “my parents are doing so much for me, if my performance continues like this will I be able to give the same thing (or better) to my children after these many years (10 –20 years)?”

This is very true that each one of us is unique in our thought; processing and attitude towards life depending upon our past experiences and situations of life. But, in spite of having different attitude towards life, all of us have a common goal i.e. love, happiness, satisfaction and prosperity in life. To achieve all these, we require healthy communication between interpersonal relationships, family members, friends and others.

So if you want to avoid this situation in your life, share as much as possible with your dear ones. You should not give any chance for the development of any kind of misunderstanding within your people. If your heart wishes to maintain healthy relationship with your people then your heart will find many ways for doing it. You can talk about your experiences, feelings, emotions, problems etc. Obviously, physical distance matters a lot. Making phone calls is very expensive and so you can write a letter. Whenever you meet, you can give a healthy talk. Or without saying anything you can express your feelings with your physical presence or with your body language. It is not necessary that you have to communicate with all the people surrounding you. But I would like to say that you have to communicate with at least some one. That person may be your best friend or your mother, father, brother or sister or neighbour. If you do not express your thoughts or problems then they will pre occupy your subconscious mind, which may disrupt your normal behavior.

I do realize this problem of communication gap in my day-to-day life. I have to improve my communication skill and so I try to communicate with lots of people. I give a talk just like an open book. I talk in different dimensions with different people. It may be about a beautiful young girl who had applied her eyeliner wrongly, day to day problems, aim in life, political issues etc… Many times I ask many questions especially to my younger who get irritated with it but it is just my way to bridge communication gap between them and myself. And I am glad to say that I am close to many people (my assumption may be wrong). But the disadvantage that has come along my way is that many people think that I am a useless talkative fellow. I have to accept both things in my life. Everything comes under the same package. But, still I am happy and that matters.

You may be aware of all this things. But it is just reinforcement. You may agree or disagree with me. I shall be happy if you send me your comments as well. It will keep alive our communication system. I am very thankful to my cute younger sister Hamari who has helped me in my work.

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Suicide

Dr. Biplab Jamatia

Suicide means an intentional or voluntary determination to end one's life. In this case, the willingness to die originates within the person. The presence of a known or hidden reason causes one to end one's life. Suicide is a state in which choices or options are never considered before the act.

Sir Thomas Browne first used the word “suicide” in 1642 in his Religio Medici. The word originated from SUI (of oneself) and CAEDES (murder). Suicide is commonly referred to as Atmahatya in (Hindi, India), Kha Tua Tai in (Thai, Thailand), Bunuh Diri in (Bahasa, Indonesia), Itahathya in (Bangla, Bangladesh), Siya Diivinasa Ganima in (Sinhalese, Sri Lanka) and by other local terms in different countries. Since then, the word has evoked constant and continuous debate and has been defined in various ways for medical, social, psychological, administrative, legal, spiritual and religious purposes.

Suicide finds a mention in the ancient treatises of all cultures. According to Hindu mythology, the death of Lord Rama led to mass suicides as a ritual; later the Upanishads condemned suicide. However, after the war of Mahabharata, King Yudhishtira thought of committing suicide by giving up food and water. In earlier days, suicidal acts by certain categories of people, such as widows, the terminally ill and the aged as well as death at holy places, was accepted in Indian culture. The practice of Sallekhana, by which a devotee ended his life by gradual starvation, exists in Jainism even today. The customs of Sati (self-immolation by a women over the funeral pyre of her husband) and Johar (mass suicides among Rajput women to avoid molestation by solders invading their land), were practiced for a long time in India.

As early as the sixth century, the Christian church declared suicide as an unacceptable act and a form of murder, and concluded that it was immoral and could never be justified. Suicide victims were even refused burial in the early part of the thirteenth century. In the New Testament, there is only one case of direct suicide, that of Judas Iscariot who betrayed Jesus Christ. Filled with remorse, he hanged himself. Islam views suicide as a sin; as by deliberately killing oneself, the individual not only destroys his skills and qualities, but also deprives his family and society. Zoriastrian philosophers consider taking one's own life a grievous crime. The early Greeks considered suicide an appropriate solution to certain stressful situations such as terminal illness, love or disappointment. However, the Romans were against suicide, in the sense that committing suicide was a sin, whereby the person deprived the State of his moral duties. Judaism also considers suicide to be a sinful act. According to the French philosopher Albert Camus (Myth of Sisphus), “Suicide is the only philosophical problem in the world. An act of suicide is prepared within the silence of the heart, as is a great work of art.” In certain situations and in wars, suicide was considered a moral and heroic act (e.g. hara-kiri by Japanese Samurais).

Suicide has been glorified or condemned through the ages and the debate continues even today. With the thinking and understanding, the meaning of suicide have changed. It is now regarded more as a tragedy than a ritual. The first scientific attempt to understand the rationale behind suicide started in 1763 with the work of Merian who emphasized that suicide was neither a sin nor a crime, but a disease. Later on many scientists have advanced this idea further to conclude that it is the state of mind, along with all external influences, which result in suicide.

The increasing economic turmoil, political unrest, social upheaval, communal disharmony and widening gap between the haves and have nots have added another dimension to this problem. In these situations, serious threats of loss of property, loved ones, job, pride, honour, status, independence and support systems operate in a major way to push an individual to a state of despair and dejection. These tenets question the fundamental survival of human beings in their respective societies based on existent ideologies and strategies. The recent crop failure in India, the civil war in Sri Lanka, economic turmoil in Thailand and economic and political upheaval in Indonesia are some indicators of sociopolitical instability in these countries. The emerging “empty nest syndrome” in countries (children moving away from parents), “latch-key children syndrome” (parents leaving children alone due to their working status) has also been identified as a major factor for suicide. With the aged, terminally ill, or isolated individuals having no one to take care of them and offer emotional support, the situation has become more difficult. At the other extreme, the economic need for both parents to work coupled with educational pressures has contributed to the increasing social and health problems among children and adolescents. Solution to these problems needs to focus on equitable distribution of resources and socioeconomic reforms.

With a rate of 11 per 100000 suicides per year, an increase from 6 per 100000 during the 1980s, India occupies the second highest rate of suicide in the South East Asia Region. Major variations are noticed across the country, probably related to reporting practices. Kerala (29 per 100000), Karnataka (21 per 100000), and Tripura as well as west Bengal (19 per 100000) had highest rates of suicide. The magnitude of attempted suicides (Para suicides) is not clearly known for each individual country as no single reporting agency compiles this type of data. However, it is acknowledged that for every completed suicide, nearly 10-20 persons attempt suicide. In India, a majority of these attempted suicides were among the young (20-24 years) age group, more among males (53%) than females (47%), and from poor middle class, nuclear families. A self-inflicted burn as the method of attempted suicide was common among women, as well as self-poisoning with organophosphorus compounds and drugs among men.

After having all these facts we should think another dimension of this issue. My perception may be wrong. But I am writing all this just to express my pain when I have come across many suicidal acts in our day-to-day life especially to those who are part of my life. Though every one of us is unique but we are living in a family with certain goals. And the goals are happiness, prosperity and supporting each other in our life. In a family, many members live with their own duty and responsibility. In a typical Indian family, father usually looks after the external affairs of the family whereas mother acting as a good manager of the internal things of the family matters and coordinating father and children. Children are obedient and doing their own work and gradually become adult and start acting like his parents and take care of their old parents. Events of both joy and sorrow like birth, marriage, festival, jokes, laugh, cry, minor misunderstanding, quarrel, accident and death take place in every family. But the most unfortunate event in a family is when any member of a family commits suicide. It is really very difficult to pinpoint the answer to the cause of the disaster.

Reasons may be many e.g. a person may be feeling that he is totally useless or faces serious failure or commits serious mistake, which may be a danger to his family or his death can only solve the present problem. Whatever the reasons, at the peak of the moment, an individual lost balance of his state of mind and think that his death is the best solution. And he commits suicide. Before committing suicide individual may give a thought of his family members and friends. But unfortunately he defines his priority and find that his death is the best solution. During this episode he just fulfill his desire and leave his problem to his family members. His near and dear ones will be submerged in the sorrow of the ocean. As a result the normal function and progress of a family will be definitely disrupted.

If we think family is a complete body and members are the unit of the body. Likewise if we take the individual of a family member as a complete body and his different components like dreams, desires, social life, and aim in life, day to day work, responsibility, enjoyment, sorrow and progress are unit in his life. When this individual did any thing under impulsion or under incorrect judgment that doesn't have any favorable outcome. Then this unfavorable outcome may cause some pain to his life as well as his family members. Like for example, a student from a very distant place comes to a central area for his education. But if he is not doing his hallmark work sincerely and only enjoying and spending his time then his result may not turn up to an expected level. This unexpected result may be painful for him as well as his family members. Just like a suicidal act leave some painful moments to his family members. After few years when he starts searching his existence then he may find himself no where in this world. In this case also his enjoyment component engulf other unit of life i.e. dreams, aim in life, a successful man, good brother, good son and good friend etc. His enjoyment and not doing his own work in his studying period proved like a suicidal act. Even I committed a suicidal act many times because of my stubborn nature and habits of blunt speaking. At the very moment I spoke out everything honestly and bluntly which make my dear and near ones cry. I am supposed to take care of their emotions. But because of my priority or false priority or whatever you may say I committed suicide. I also failed once in medicine when I was doing MBBS. So, I can feel the pain of failure. Any work or enjoyment which compel to neglect his main work at any time of life which turn up to a unfavorable outcome to himself or to his near and dear one may prove as a suicidal act. If we agree on this concept then we should try to reduce the number of suicide in our day-to-day life.

It is really very painful when I came to know that few students studying here in Delhi and other places are not doing good results in their examination. They are not utilizing their hidden talent to climb up the ladder of success in their life. In fact most of them does not know about their potential (hidden talent). I hope, the day they realize their magic power in within themselves, they stop committing suicide. They will prosper and have an insight to mental satisfaction that they have never experienced. Success will come and knock at their doors everyday in their life. I am always praying for that very nice day. And this nice day will be the happiest day in my life.

Source: Suicide Prevention: Emerging from darkness; WHO;2001;Refional office for South East Asia

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Khatangw

Mr. Kahamnuk Jamatia

Khawo khatungma tobowi,

Khugo mwnwimwng rowi,

Je ang achaifaikha,

O angno ang khatangw.

O hayungo faigwi,

Mwktwi kwrwi kabtwtwi,

Je pwila rakma nakha

O nokbarno ang khatangw.

Mokolo imang chobwi,

Kisa kisa kiritwtwi,

Je pwila ano bamkha,

O yakno ang khatangw.

Kwlaikha hinkhe yachagwi,

Lengkha hinkhe songsaoi,

Je makhakna fwrwngkha,

O nukano ang khatangw.

  Kakraima kailaioi,

Maitwk-nwitwk thwnglaioi,

Je tolao torlaikha,

O twikarno ang khatangw.

Nana bai rokolaigwi,

"Sadi,sadi", pirilaigwi,

Horbwrwng khwnalaima,

O kothomano ang khatangw.

Badukhung yago twigwi,

Swino loge tilangwi,

Tok kokna thanglaima,

O bolongno ang khatangw.

Kheto o thangwi,

kebeng kebeng wngwi,

khangrai khonoklaima,

O laini hakorno ang khatangw.

Dipor jora lengla laigwi,

Nokbar kwchang manjakgwi,

Ah pengwi charojakma,

O gairingno ang khatangw.

Hopwng gwlang ailaigwi,

Chalai, nunglai, mwsalaigwi,

Aiswkang tukutwtwi, awan naituklaima,

O hangrai ni noksano ang khatangw.

Bodol bakjaklaigwi,

Horsa charaklaigwi,

Narkwra, thailik, kuruk, tomsa khoklaima,

O hojagirini horno ang khatangw.

Sikla bodol ringlaigwi,

Mai-mi sunglaigwi,

Chengra thwngte thwngte,mai-mi boklaima,

O parani kailai mano ang khatangw.

Khawo khatungma kwrwi,

Khugo mwnwimwng kwrwi,

Jotonw faigwi, bol kongsa bokfaima,

O parani simalwngno ang khatangw.

ANI ACHAIMA HANO ANG KHATANGW…

Sabo Ang

Dr. Atul Debbarma

Sabo wngkha ang ?

Sini manlia saisung sak kaisano

Pogwi thahngkha ani mung

Koroi thahngkha ani mwkhang

Pogwi thahngkha ani khorang

Muitu manlia ani sakmang bahai

Koroi thangkha ani sakhai.

Bwswk mung farlaikha ano

Mwkhang ani slaijak kha waibwswk !

Ani bwsakno tansui kubuni bwsak thepajak kha

Ani khukni bwsali soklai saboni bwslai rifaikha manjui.

Bwswk bahai siljakha ani sago ! .

Miling malang chakha mokol

Khunju hohong hahang wngkha

Bwslai bohrsai thahngkha

Bukung kungsili kakha.

Sabo wngkha ang?

Saisung sakno swhngo ang.

Bachai sagnai bwskang

Ufilnaio uklok bwskang

Ani sakmang ani mwkhang

Sinide mano ano ang.

Swbabo wngkha sagnai bising

Yagra yak tiasakhai yaksise chalango.

Twisachulung thahngwi

Je mansak chirikhok kha

Sinide manno ani khorang ang

Khunju bufaio kifilwi yamrokni khorang

Sundrumachai makifilkha ang.

Boro thahngwi sabono swhngnani?

Sabo tongmani wngkha?

Sabo ang?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Maidul

Dr. Biplab Jamatia

Yaphawo maidul nawi

Yak unklok khei

Nwng bw bachawi tongu

Ang bw bachawi tongu.

Nini yaphawo maidul tongu

O kokno le –

Nwngbw saimanw 

Angbw saimanw.

Yago maidul tong phanu

Bohok le –

Ninibw okhui tongu

Anibw okhui tongu.

Boni maidul no si chalainai

O kok no nw-

Nwngbw wansuk tongu

Angbw wansuk tongu.

Hakhei wansukte wansuktenw

Maidul le –

Ninibw kwchang thangkha

Anibw kwchang thangkha.

Hakhei tong lai lahan khele

Maidul le-

Ninibw sumwi thangnai

Anibw sumwi thangnai.

Hakheinw chaya khei

Ok huiwi tonglai khele

Nwngbw phan kwrwi wngnai

Angbw phan kwrwi wngnai.

Yak ni maidul no chawi

Phan rak lai se nai

O kok no nw

Nwngbw wanshoksi di

Angbw wanshok si nai.

Phang rakgwi baksa khei tanglai se nai

O kok nonw –

Nwng bw wanshok sidi

Ang bw wanshok si nai.

 

Jora

Dr. Biplab Jamatia

Hakheinw laiwi thahng kha

Jora kolokma.

Haifanw tabukbw

Pogwi thahngw chwng-

Nok pharnai samung mankheinw,

Pogwi thangw chwng-

Bupha, bwsai butharjagmani kok rokno.

Yapha khorobwi tongw chwngle,

Para ni bwmung slaijagwi

Kwtal bwmung bai ma salai khe.

Chwngle sakno

Belai khei kwrwng hinwi ma khakawu

Sak ni kok no manya khei

Buini kok bai kok ma salai khei.

Chwng le sakno

Belai khei naithok jagw,

Sakni kanmungno khibiwi,

Buini kanmungno ma kankhe.

Chwng le belai khei tongthok jagw,

Sakni samung tangya khei,

Buini hamya salaiwi sal ma rohorkhe.

Bukung kuchuk wngwi thangw,

“Sir” yakhe “Babu” hinjag kheinw,

Ma, pha, takhuk tei bukhuk

mai machaya rokno.

Hakheinw laiwy thahng kha

Jora kolok ma.

Teibw bwswk kwdwk

O jora ba tongnai.

 

 

 

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Nwngbo

Dr. Atul Debbarma

Nwngbo mano bui hai

Himaloy hachwkni bocholong

Everest ni busubo kasai.

Kwbangma borok kasai malangkha

Twma khangar yaksungwi nwngba wansugkha?

Bebakno tongo nini thanibo

Nono kasui manai sabo?

Bwkha thondi

Lambakni budukbai badukhung thontwi.

Khutruk bising ni achwi kwlangma risa kwtalbai

Chango ri khawi

Aitorma kwchwng no nasigwi

Thangdi nwngbo je malayasa himwi.

Yaksi yagra ta nasikdi.

Kungkila pungmano ta khwnalangdi.

Tokfing (Mayur) mwsama ta nailangdi.

Kherengbar bubarno ta khollangdi.

Mokol filikya aitorma nasigwi.

Salgrong bai thahngdi.

Twi kwchwngo tukuyawi.

Ma-fa tanglangma damra twiwi

Thangdi, nwngbo mananw

Himaloy hachwkni bocholong

Everest ni bokhorogo kasaui.

 

Borok

Madhusudhan Debbarma

Yakung yak gwnang borok,

Kung mokol gwnang borok,

Khuk khunju gwnang borok,

Yasikong bai khochai chanai borok,

Sago thwi gwnang borok,

Sago man gwnang borok,

Kwthang ni bising tong kwrwng borok,

Kwthang ni bising wansuk kwrwng borok,

Nukhung khai chanai borok,

Somaj khai tongnai borok,

Nwng tini tamo wngkha?

Thahngwi manwibo thahnglia wngkha,

Tangwi manwi bo tanglia wngkha,

Saui manbo saliya wngkha,

Nugwi tongbo nuglia wngkha,

Khwnai tongbo khwnalia wngkha,

Chai tongbo charilia wngkha,

Nwng tini tamo wngkha?

Takhuk bukhukni tongthai chathar kha,

Kaisano kaisa naimaya khaikha,

Lam kahamno khibwi hamya o thangkha,

Kubuino khibwi tatal no sakha,

Borokni tomung sago kwrwikha,

Kha kaham khibwi hamyano nakha,

Nwng tini tamo wngkha?

Borokni tomung tongya hinkhaile,

Wansukham khawo twiya hinkhaile,

Imangno khibwi mukthang naya khaile,

Yapiri nwng kaslenai,

Dongoro kwlai thwinai,

Ha sakani yak ma sulang nai.  

 

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Khorang 2001
 

 

 

 

 


Khorang 2005

 

 


Khorang 200
6
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Khorang 2009